Monday, September 30, 2019
1. RBI and its Roles Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is the central bank of India. It monitors, formulates and implements IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s monetary policy. Established in the year 1935, RBI was nationalized in the year 1949. Owned fully by the Government of India, Reserve Bank has 22 regional offices in various state capitals of India with its headquarters located in Mumbai. It has a majority stake in the State Bank of India. Role of RBI RBI formulates the monetary policy, thus regulating and supervising the economy of India. RBI is the supreme banking authority in India.It sets the guidelines according to which the banking operations and financial systems within the country functions. i. Issuer of currency RBI is the sole authority for the issue of currency in India. Major currency is in the form of RBI notes, such as notes in the denominations of two, five, ten, twenty, fifty, one hundred, five hundred, and one thousand. RBI has two departments Ã¢â¬â the Is sue department and Banking department. The issue department is dedicated to issuing currency. All the currency issued is the monetary liability of RBI that is backed by assets of equal value held by this department.Assets consist of gold, coin, bullion, foreign securities, rupee coins, and the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s rupee securities. The department acquires these assets whenever required by issuing currency. The conditions governing the composition of these assets determine the nature of the currency standard that prevails in India. The Banking department of RBI looks after the banking operations. It takes care of the currency in circulation and its withdrawal from circulation. Issuing new currency is known as expansion of currency and withdrawal of currency is known as contraction of currency. ii. Banker to the governmentRBI acts as banker, both to the central government and state governments. It manages all the banking transactions of the government involving the receipt and payment of money. In addition, RBI remits exchange and performs other banking operations. RBI provides short-term credit to the central government. Such credit helps the government to meet any shortfalls in its receipts over its disbursements. RBI also provides short term credit to state governments as advances. RBI also manages all new issues of government loans, servicing the government debt outstanding, and nurturing the market for government's securities.RBI advises the government on banking and financial subjects, international finance, financing of five-year plans, mobilizing resources, and banking legislation. iii. Managing government securities Various financial institutions such as commercial banks are required by law to invest specified minimum proportions of their total assets/liabilities in government securities. RBI administers these investments of institutions. The other responsibilities of RBI regarding these securities are to ensure Ã¢â¬â * Smooth functioning of the marke t * Readily available to potential buyers * Easily available in large numbers Undisturbed maturity-structure of interest rates because of excess or deficit supply * Not subject to quick and huge fluctuations * Reasonable liquidity of investments * Good reception of the new issues of government loans iv. Banker to other Banks The role of RBI as a banker to other banks is as follows: * Holds some of the cash reserves of banks * Lends funds for short period * Provides centralized clearing and quick remittance facilities RBI has the authority to statutorily ensure that the scheduled commercial banks deposit a stipulated ratio of their total net liabilities. This ratio is known as cash reserve ratio [CRR].However, banks can use these deposits to meet their temporary requirements for interbank clearing as the maintenance of CRR is calculated based on the average balance over a period. v. Controller of money supply and credit RBI has to regulate the claims of competing banks on money suppl y and credit. RBI also needs to meet the credit requirements of the rest of the banking system. RBI needs to ensure promotion of maximum output, and maintain price stability and a high rate of economic growth. To perform these functions effectively, RBI uses several control instruments such as Ã¢â¬â * Open Market Operations Changes in statutory reserve requirements for banks * Lending policies towards banks * Control over interest rate structure * Statutory liquidity ration of banks vi. Exchange manager and controller RBI manages exchange control, and represents India as a member of the international Monetary Fund [IMF]. According to foreign exchange regulations, all foreign exchange receipts, whether on account of export earnings, investment earnings, or capital receipts, whether of private or government accounts, must be sold to RBI either directly or through authorized dealers. Most commercial banks are authorized dealers of RBI. ii. Publisher of monetary data and other data R BI maintains and provides all essential banking and other economic data, formulating and critically evaluating the economic policies in India. In order to perform this function, RBI collects, collates and publishes data regularly. Users can avail this data in the weekly statements, the RBI monthly bulletin, annual report on currency and finance, and other periodic publications. 2. Asset and Wealth Management: mutual fund, different types of mutual fund and various products and services offered by mutual fund companies Mutual FundA mutual fund is a professionally managed Medium or vehicle that pools money from many investors and invests it in stocks, bonds, short-term money market instruments and other securities. Mutual fund is managed by professional managers who have deep knowledge and understanding of Stock Market, Bonds, money market. The combined holdings the mutual fund owns are known as its portfolio. Types of mutual fund Mutual Funds are of various types depending upon the f ollowing: 1) On the basis of structure This includes open-ended funds and close ended funds I.Open-ended funds Liquidity is the key feature involved which means these funds are like Open Box where investors can enter into or exit from an open-ended scheme anytime at NAV (Net Asset Value) related prices. Open ended funds are popular with investors because they operate in similar way to stock market where no maturity or lock-in period is involved. II. Close-ended funds A close-ended fund or scheme has a stipulated maturity period for eg. 5 Ã¢â¬â 7 years. The fund is open for subscription only during a specified period at the time of the launch of the scheme.Investors can invest in the scheme at the time of the initial public issue and thereafter they can buy or sell the units of the scheme on the stock exchange where the units are listed. In order to provide an exit route to the investors, some close-ended funds give the option of selling back the units to the mutual fund through p eriodic repurchase at NAV related prices. 2) On the basis of asset class On the basis of Asset classes there can be Equity scheme wherein you invest in shares, Debt or Income scheme wherein you can invest in govt. ecurities, balanced scheme wherein you can invest in both equities and fixed income securities. 3) On the basis of investment objectives Investment objectives can be Growth scheme or Income scheme or Balanced scheme. | Growth Scheme| Income Scheme| Balanced Scheme| Aim| To provide capital appreciation over medium to long term| To provide regular and steady income to investors| To provide both growth and income by periodically distributing a part of the income ; capital gains they earn| Invests| Invests a major part of their fund in equities| Invest in fixed income securities like bonds and corporate debentures. Invest in both bonds and shares| 4) Other types A. Sector specific scheme Invest only in sector for eg. Infrastructure fund would invest in infrastructure companies . Sectoral funds carry a higher risk along with a higher potential to generate returns. This is because their fate moves with the sector in which they invest. Therefore if that sector performs well, they generate excellent returns. B. Index scheme Index attempts to replicate a stock market index or as closely as possible by investing in the stocks that form that index in the very same proportion.So a NIFTY index fund would have the same 50 companies that make up Nifty in the same weightage. The aim of an index fund is to replicate the performance of that market index. So if the markets are rising, then your investment will rise with almost the same percentage and if it is falling, you will get similar negative returns. The main advantage of investing in an index fund is the low Expense Ratio that is incurred in these funds as compared to other investments because it is passively managed funds. C. ELSS (Equity linked saving schemes)An Equity-linked saving scheme (ELSS) is a great inv estment option that offers the double benefits of Tax saving and capital Gains. Money collected under ELSS is mainly invested in equity and equity related instruments. ELSS Schemes have 3 years Lock-in period. Because of this, fund manager can have portfolio of stocks that can outperform over a period of time. The best way to invest in ELSS is through Systematic Investment Plan (SIP). With SIP you can invest a small amount every month for a specific time period.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Confucious Said “One Who Learns Without Thinking Is Lost; One Who Thinks Without Learning Is in Great Danger”
Throughout the day, we think about activities we plan to do or learn from the activities that we do, but thinking about the activity does not mean we are also learning about the activity, nor does learning about the activity mean we are thinking about the activity. To think would be to have a belief about something, to reflect on something or to put something into consideration. To learn would be to remember something or to obtain knowledge through experience, studies or being taught. Confucius is quoted to have said that Ã¢â¬Å"one who learns without thinking is lost; one who thinks without learning is in great dangerÃ¢â¬ .Confucius is correct with this description of people who focus on learning or thinking much more than the other. It is necessary to both think and learn, and to understand the reasons for why we need to. When one only learns but does not think about what one has learned can make the knowledge confusing, misleading or useless. One who learns a lot but does not th ink for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self how to apply it and how it is important to them will not fully understand how that knowledge works. When one does not fully understand the knowledge, they can get confused as to what the outcome of the learning process was to be.I know this to be realistic because when I learn about stem cells in biology class, I am also taught the uses of stem cells, which leads me to think about how ethical it is to create embryos to research their embryonic stem cells and then to destroy the embryos. I understand the importance of the knowledge I learned better and am able to remember the knowledge more easily because it was a relatable and clear idea that I could apply to my day-to-day life, because I thought about the application of the knowledge.Learning in addition to thinking is better than to only learn or to only think. To only think and form thoughts without first obtaining information about the subject of those thoughts can offend others who have learned and giv en thought to the subject. One who solely thinks but does not try to learn facts to make their thoughts reasonable has a high possibility of getting into disagreements with people who have facts to back up their thoughts, if one expresses their thoughts.When someone with their own thoughts, who has also learned of reasons to support these thoughts, meets someone who has set beliefs that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t based on anything they have learned, the person with no facts to back up their argument will be, as Confucius said, Ã¢â¬Å"in great dangerÃ¢â¬ of losing the argument. In classes like History and Social Studies, we, the students, have to learn about current events and history in order to make reasonable opinions about the material and issues. I have been in and have witnessed debates where there must be textual or factual evidence in order for the opinions to be solid.The learning involved with proving thoughts to be more correct or convincing is beneficial when utilized in fair amoun ts. A wholesome balance comes from learning about what one thinks, and thinking about what one learns in fair amounts. It is not healthy to have an excess of one thing and not another that would help balance it out, as proven by science and demonstrated by many health problems such as cavities from an excess of sugar. As learning and thinking are both important, it is important to balance out these two actions.Learning to form thoughts, and thinking about what we have learned are two things that work like a cycle. If you learn, you should think, and if you think you should also learn about what you are thinking of, which cancels and balances each other out. Even so, in some cases, these two do not balance as well as they should. Although to learn and think simultaneously has its advantages, it also has disadvantages. When a person is to learn in addition to think, they may become biased or distracted in their processing of the knowledge for use.A wildlife biologist who studies wildl ife in Africa may learn a great deal of the animals and the environment. Eventually, they learn about the warning signs and data that display that the wildlife is dying. If this wildlife biologist thinks too much about how sad this is, and is emotionally impaired from continuing their duties and helping with the improvement of the environment and living conditions, they could stop working in that field of science. A person who thinks, but does not learn as much as they think, is more free to form genuine opinions uninfluenced by what they could learn as the correct, acceptable mindset.Learning the common mindset could be a result of conformity, and not for the good of the thinker. To both learn and think isnÃ¢â¬â¢t absolutely the best but is relatively better than to be ignorant and unconscious. It is important to understand why we should learn about what we think, and to think about what we learn. It makes us more knowledgeable. It helps us defend ourselves better. It creates a h ealthy balance between our focus on absorbing knowledge and our focus on how this knowledge will help us and the world. To learn and to think is to be educated, and education is necessary in our world.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
The debate over foreign aid has been raging for quite a while now. Some critics have argued that aid does precious little to the poor countries it reaches. Others arguing against this pessimism have stated that aid brings in investment, which then fosters growth. However what is indeed a matter of concern is that most countries do not have the capability of absorbing aid.This is often a function of poor administrative processes, but could also arise out of poor governance structures that allow the siphoning away of funds due to the lack of accountability in these countries. There are a number of instances that are cited by skeptics to argue against foreign aid as it encourages corruption and leakage.De Soto (1989) gives some extremely clear examples of how corruption in developing countries has left the poor miserable and vulnerable. Boone(1994) shows how aid gives rise to varying outcomes in various countries.Weisskopf (1972) had pointed out how domestic savings and therefore domest ic investment gets affected by various kinds of foreign aid and foreign investment. This kind of intervention is not always in the best interest of the developing country.The debateThe issues are several. Donor countries often give aid for specific purposes. However, what might happen at the recipientÃ¢â¬â¢s end is that the aid gets diverted. For example, aid for expenditure of health might get diverted to spending on education.This often depends on what constituencies are more powerful in the country receiving aid. The same is true at the donor end, where more powerful lobbies ensure that it is the sector that gets the benefit of aid.Pharmaceutical sectors in developed countries have very often been blamed for diverting most aid into the health sector while the problems afflicting poor nations might be more acute in terms of starvation and malnutrition.Another reason for disgruntlement against foreign aid is that it tends to distort the domestic development agenda and takes it aw ay towards issues that might not be priority areas. Pfaff (2004) demonstrates how the environment debate in the developed world got transferred to the developing countries riding on massive amounts of aid.In the entire environmental revolution that came about in the seventies and the eighties, the industrialized and developed world ties most of its concern over the environment with aid packages. Additionally, what happens is that aid comes in for sectors, which are highly underdeveloped, and therefore the resources required to handle this aid might not be locally available.These resources are usually both human and material resources. With the non-availability of trained personnel in host countries, the modalities of aid therefore ensure that expatriates are then responsible for the distribution and utilization of such aid. Foreign experts are, to say the least, expensive.What adds to the problem is the bias this builds into the entire process. There is already enough suspicion that exists against foreigners. In addition, there is the entire issue of the lack of familiarity with local issues and local priorities.This gives rise to a disgruntlement with the management of aid and with locals feeling left out and the managers feeling uncomfortable; the efficacy of such aid reduces significantly.The foreigner manager has different sets of priorities and an alien understanding of conditions under which the local population understands the need for assistance and this duality of purpose could lead to tension and misunderstanding. How Aid helps bad governments survive By far the most stringent criticism of foreign aid has been by way of the evidence that poorly governments in developing countries have managed to survive because of the aid they are able to attract.These governments have used the aid to push policies in their countries that have been detrimental to the development of markets due to the poor economic and industrial policy environment that has been put i n place. Aid has lead to complacency as some constituencies receive enough sops and therefore do not exert pressure on their governments.Aid gives rise to protectionist measures and the competitive environment that must exist and evolve in developing economies just does not come through.Therefore poor governance continues to thrive and the dependence on foreign aid becomes perpetual. Krueger (1974) shows how this situation helps rent seekers in developing societies thrive on the poor state of political processes, especially in times of economic distress.What has also been observed that aid that comes tied to certain conditions, forces structural adjustment programs on countries that are unable to protest.However unwillingly, these countries must undergo painful reforms to satisfy the conditions laid by donors. This has often resulted in large reductions in public investments and in subsidies to the targeted poor. The famous examples where such pressure has caused domestic damage are in the structural adjustments that were forced upon Argentina, Brazil and Mexico.With pressure on them to reduce fiscal deficits, these countries went in for stringent reform measures leading to high inflation and acute stagnation. Locke (2001) shows the extent to which governments can pressurize other nations to manage policies to restructure economies in a particular fashion.However it must be pointed out that this debate is not one sided. There are countries like Zambia that have been at the receiving end. With aid increasing annually over the seventies and the eighties, the economic situation in Zambia went form bad to worse. On the other hand is Ghana in the same region.Here aid helped foster a friendly environment for the domestic policy to correct itself and help the local economy grow. In Zambia, increased aid coincided with poor policy, while in Ghana as aid levels went up, there were marked improvements seen in the fiscal and monetary sectors as also in the external secto r with trade policy improving considerably.Levinsohn and McMillan (2005) argue that aid to Ethiopia actually was pro poor and enabled the country move towards food sufficiency and food security by ensuring that the poor were given access to food supplies. Ã The authors show how households, especially the very poor, benefited when aid went into the provision of wheat in Ethiopia. The paper further argues that the very poor actually benefited the most in this process.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Internal Analysis and SWOT Analysis slp 03 - Essay Example The chapter provides the basics of the topic and is simple to read and understand. The chapter also provides a clear understanding and provides a seep insight into the topic. The references for the Steps 2 and 3 have been taken from the website of LOWE Home Improvements. The website is one of the most reliable sources of information for the company and to gain the all financial figures. Also a research that was conducted by one in January 2008 has also been used as it provides a deep analysis of the company and also provides all essential information and details about the company. The benefits of using these references are that they provide reliable and accurate information along with being recent. The references are also easily accessible and the details provided are easy to understand and are apt as they are focused for the investors. Bharatbooks, 2008, Ã¢â¬ËPremium Company Profile: Lowes Companies, Inc.Ã¢â¬â¢, Accessed on 29th November 2009, Retrieved from http://www.bharatbook.com/Market-Research-Reports/Premium-Company-Profile-Lowes-Companies-Inc.html Heller, Z., 2009, Ã¢â¬ËHome Depot vs. LoweÃ¢â¬â¢s: Where is theÃ Difference?Ã¢â¬â¢, 6th July 2009, Accessed on 29th November 2009, Retrieved from
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Memristor Hardware Analysis Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1
Memristor Hardware Analysis - Research Paper Example Chua demonstrated a number of principles to expose that there was a Ã¢â¬ËmissingÃ¢â¬â¢ two-terminal circuit element from the family of Ã¢â¬Å"fundamentalÃ¢â¬ passive devices such as resistor, capacitor and inductor. He named it as Ã¢â¬Å"MemristorÃ¢â¬ because it is a resistor with memory. He said that memristor exists in order to relate the flux in a circuit to the charge but during that time people couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t figure out what physics could give rise between flux and charge. People tried to find the causality of the two to find out their relationship. In the mathematical proof of Chua it just shows flux and charge are equal which means that any physical interaction that makes the mathematical equation true gives rise to memristor. He mathematically proved that memristors had features that are not able to generate by any mixture of the other three elements. A common analogy for a resistor is a pipe that carries water. The water itself is analogous to electrical charge, the pressure at the input of the pipe is similar to voltage, and the rate of flow of the water through the pipe is like electrical current. Just as with an electrical resistor, the flow of water through the pipe is faster if the pipe is shorter and/or it has a larger diameter. An analogy for a memristor is an interesting kind of pipe that expands or shrinks when water flows through it.Ã If water flows through the pipe in one direction, the diameter of the pipe increases, thus enabling the water to flow faster. If water flows through the pipe in the opposite direction, the diameter of the pipe decreases, thus slowing down the flow of water. If the water pressure is turned off, the pipe will retain it most recent diameter until the water is turned back on. Thus, the pipe does not store water like a bucket (or a capacitor) Ã¢â¬â it remembers how much water flowed thro ugh it (Ã¢â¬Å"HP Memristor FaQÃ¢â¬ ). The characteristic of memristor is
Global warming - Research Paper Example Plants captured atmospheric carbon and converted it into sometime useful for the plant and life. These processes continued for thousands of centuries and the atmosphere became pleasant. However, due to the impact of the natural disasters like earth quakes, floods, etc, the plants, tress and organisms died on a massive scale and buried under the layers of sand. The immense pressure and temperature under the layer of sedimentation converted the organisms back to the carbon compounds. There organic compounds with greater ratio of carbon is present under the crust in the form of coal, oil and natural gas. These organic compounds are often referred as fossil fuel resources. When human race discovered that there is an immense amount of energy trapped in the coal, oil and natural gas, they tried to extract the energy out without acknowledging what will be byproduct of the reaction and how byproduct will affect the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere and human life. The use of fossil fuel resources increased as the hunger for energy increased. No one has the idea hat the burning process is doing to the environment. In the 19th century, the demand for energy increased significantly due to the massive industrialization. Industrial goods were considered more reliable. Trains as the medium of transportation were introduced. Trains reduced the time period of the journeys. Steam trains utilized massive amount of coal to generate mechanical power fro the train. The use of coal in various other sectors also increased. Some people argued that coal energy is not good to the health but coal was the prior source of energy and no one argued to restrict the use of technology no matter what are the side effects of the energy. With the invention of internal combustion engines, fossil fuel based oil resources were used to power the internal combustion engines. Cars, motorcycles, trucks, busses, etc are fitted with internal combustion engines. Many industrialists came up with newer vehicle designs
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
The go - Essay Example $1.5 trillion are imposed as taxes and the spending is not expected to go down below 23% of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. The budget that is proposed by Republicans is called Ã¢â¬Å"The Path to ProsperityÃ¢â¬ . It is claimed that this budget will bring down the spending by $6.2 trillion. According to the study that is conducted by Hertage Center for Data Analysis, almost 1 million new jobs will be created if this budget is accepted. Important features of this budget are reduction in spending, welfare reforms, retirement and health security, tax reform and budget enforcement. It proposes to bring down the spending on various government agencies. It includes important welfare programs that end up in generating jobs. The reform programs will save Medicare. Most importantly it will protect the retirement and health security. Furthermore, this budget is likely to emphasis on growth by bringing reforms in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s backdated tax code and by bringing down the tax rates. Lastly t his budget recognizes the importance and requirement of Ã¢â¬ËchangeÃ¢â¬â¢ in the way of spending that is done by government.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
My Life Experiences and Concepts - Personal Statement Example Another teacher of same standard use to appreciate all the Students and help them in their problems and she also told an incident of a student of our school who was Absolutely not good at studies and left the school, but after that he was the one who invented the smallest Refrigerator one could ever see, by this I understood one thing that we should never underestimate anyone whether he/she is good at studies or not, we should always see that we help them in studies, help them in finding their hidden talent and this increases our own knowledge too. We should also not forget the examples of Great scientist, though they were not very good at their schooling they invented and discovered many things which are helpful to us even now, one of the best examples for the Great Scientist is of Sir Thomas Elva Edison. Some of the other good and bad things I learned from my collies, free classmates, seniors, and teacher are about spending life our own way, taking decisions for further studies and other major things. The most important thing a child, a student, a person does in his life is friendship, one should always make his friend, d with a person who is good nature and helping but making friend also depend on the mentality of that person.
Monday, September 23, 2019
The design book for new home owners - Essay Example book writer, my father architect and author Eduardo Rozas, for his kindness and devotion, and for his endless support with my career; his selflessness will always be remembered. I have enormous sympathy for homeowners. We all know what a struggle it is to find the home that fits your lifestyle, wish list, and budget. I deal with questions regarding this issue on a daily basis. This is pretty much my life; like the popular saying Ã¢â¬ËI am my business, my business is meÃ¢â¬â¢. I am a natural problem solver. I was the oldest sister to two brothers and always had to look after them. This is the same way I treat my clients and is partly what inspired this bookÃ¢â¬â¢s creation. This is a book that will not only help my clients or people I know, but people around the world who struggle when it is time to find that perfect house. In my research for this book I was not able to find a guide or a manual that had all the content needed to not only find the home of your dreams, but to also design it afterwards. This is my professional approach to this problem homeowners and future homeowners face. So here you are about to read my years of knowledge and professional experience. From now on when I am faced with a challenging question from clients, I am proud to say I have a book that may help you achieve all your goals when finding this dream home. I have ten years of experience with residential and commercial architectural and interior design clients, and seven years of studies in the areas of architecture and interior design. Not only have I helped my clients, I have also helped family and friends. I come from a family of architects, including my parents, sister, brother-in-law, and brother. Architecture, design and art are part of who I am and my life. I felt the need to put this knowledge to use and reach a bigger audience. In reality not everyone can afford or feel comfortable hiring an architect or interior designer. Additionally, this world is filled of do it yourselfers.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
The History of Ethnicity and Educational Attainment Essay In 1945 the UK needed rapid rebuilding, both structurally and in population re-growth. After the Second World War the UKs population was virtually non-existent, with most males having died in the war, which meant that there were not enough people around to rebuild the country. This resulted in an economic boom with more jobs than people in the country at the time, and at the same time the UK was still managing her Empire in India and the Caribbean. By the 1950s there was a rapid increase in the technological industry, yet the UK was rapidly falling behind Europe technologically and was desperate to increase their technological market. The UK soon realised that they could not afford and Empire and the rapid technological development needed to rival the market of the rest of Europe, so the decision was made to create the Immigration Policy. Afro-Caribbean immigrants were the first coloured people to arrive in the UK and were lured there by the promise of housing, employment and education, but what they found when they arrived in the UK was discrimination in housing, schooling and employment, especially in the types of jobs the immigrants were permitted to fulfil, i. e. they could work only in jobs such as bus drivers and underground attendants; only the lower status (IV class) non-skilled, manual jobs. Again, in the 1970s, the Consumer revolution leads to the introduction of new food and fashion types and the South African immigration, the UK accepted all the Indian, Pakistani and Ugandan immigrants as cheap labour forces, for as long as the economic boom continues. But in the 1980s an economic recession began meaning that unemployment increases due to the lack of goods being sold abroad. The economic recession affected everybody in the UK, but especially the immigrant groups, as they were the first employees to be laid off. This was because the immigrants were hired by industries as periphery workers; these workers are the ones to be drafted in during economic boom periods but are then laid off when a company slump occurs. There was also discrimination in the education of ethnic minority children. Education policy went through three distinct phases, assimilation, multiculturalism, and anti-racist. Assimilation, during 1945 to the early 1970s, was the educational policy that meant everyone entering the UK must be made British; the curriculum taught only white versions of history, European geography only centring on the British empire, British religions and cultures taught in RE and second language students were sent to special needs units to learn English. The next policy to be put into affect during the late 1970s until the mid-1980s was Multiculturalism, or the acknowledging of others, this policy made an effort to include other ethnicities by having special days and events to celebrate other cultures on a 1-day basis and made a step towards breaking down cultural barriers. This policy was often referred to as a steel band, sari and samara education only as it gave a 1-day insight into other cultures but then went back to teaching about Britain and white history, customs, etc. The last and current policy is that of Anti-Racist education with the aim to attack inequality and racism, reflect everybody equally, and to eradicate Euro centrism the idea that Europe is at the heart of everything that happens in the world. The curriculum has also changed to reflect world history, geography, languages, religions and cultures. Statistics to show attainment of 5 or more A*-C grades by ethnic origin between 1989-2000, released by the UK Government Department of Education and Skills give a clear picture of the educational attainment of White, Black, Asian (all), Asian (Indian), Asian (Pakistani), Asian (Bangladeshi), Asian (other including Chinese), and any other ethnic groups. The trend between 1994 and 2000, however, shows that almost all ethnic groups have steadily increased their attainment of A*-C grades. The Asian category, however, differs greatly within itself with the different minorities scoring very different results with the different Asian groups holding both the highest and lowest achievers of 5 A*-C grades. We can see this in the statistics released by the Government, these show that Asian (other including Chinese) are the highest achievers of 5 A*-C grades between 1992 (when the data became available) and 2000 with 72 grade achievers in 2000 whilst Asian (Pakistani), Asian (Bangladeshi) and Black groups are the lowest achievers throughout with only 29/30 grade achievers in the year 2000. Showing that the initial views that ethnic minorities are intellectually inferior to whites is completely unsubstantiated and are, in many cases, more likely to achieve the 5 A*-C grades than the whites themselves are.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
The Heritage Of Pakistan Moen-jo-Daro is situated at a distance of some kilometers from Larkana. A civilization fourished there some 4000 years ago. It was discovered by Sir John Marshall in 1922. Moen-jo-Daro stands as most spectecular of all the excavate cities of the Indus Valley civilizaton. It is strange that at its glory, it was a beautiful city with brick walled houses, pillared halls, markets, baths, lanes, streets and public places. Every house had walls, drains and bathrooms inside it 2. Harappa Harappa is situated in the city of Sahiwal. Scientists and archaeologists believe that Harappa also belongs to the Indus Valley Civilization. Remains of this city were excavated in the 1920. 3. Gandhara It is comparatively a new civilization, the regions comprising Northern Punjab, Peshawar valley and Eastern Afghanistan was known as Gandhara. For a long time it remained the meeting place of various ancient cultures, as it was rule by many rulers. A distinctive art which is known as Gandhara Art took place from here and flourished during the 2nd and 3rd century of Christian era. Thousands monasteries and stupas were widely here Buddhas figures, shapes and monasteries all made prominent features of Gandhara Arts. 4. Buddhist Remains The Buddhist era ushered in some 500 years B.C. The Buddhist monastery Takht-I-Bahi is in N.W.F.P, it dates 2-5 century old. Some mounds were also found near Peshawar which represents Kanishkas mighty Pakistan. An impressive complex of Chapels, Stupas, quadrangles and monks cells are also found. The great Buddhist civilization is now forming the heritage of the present Pakistan Culture. 5. Taxila It was excavated in recent times near Rawalpindi. Taxila is the most popular name in history. It came into prominence during the Persian occupation. At its zenith, the city was the nucleus of religious and cultural activities. 6. Thatta The main town of Thatta is famous for specimens of Indo-Muslim architecture in the Sub Continent. Notable among them is the great mosque built by Shah-Jahan. The principle monuments of Thatta are located on the Makli Hill. 2.3.2 Architectural Heritage 1. Lahore Fort It is also known as the Shahi Qila. It was built by Akbar. The main structures inside the fort are the Moti Masjid, Diwan-e-Aam, Maktab Khana, the Shish Mahal and Nawlakha. The Hathi and Alamgir gates are also remarkable constructions. 2. Badshahi Masjid It was built by Aurangzeb. Its architecture is similar to the Jamia Masjid Delhi. The masjid has been built with red stones while the domes are in marble. 3. Jahangir Tomb This tomb was built by Shah Jahan. It is known as a fine building of Lahore. 4. Shalimar Garden It is situated on the Grand Trunk Road and is a magnificent remnant of Mughal Granduer. The garden constitutes of three terraces, one above the other. Besides there is an elaborate and beautiful reservoir, water channels and fountains. 5. Masjid Wazir Khan It is situated in Kashmir Bazaar inside the walls of the old city. It was built by Nawab Wazir Khan who was a viceroy of Punjab under Shah Jahan. 6. Golden Masjid It is situated near Masjid Wazir Khan. It was built during the rule of Mohammad Shah and it is also a very beautiful piece of architecture. 7. Mahabat Khan Masjid This masjid was built by a Governor of Peshawar, Mahabat Khan, during Shah Jahans reign. It has a fine massive structure with lofty minarets. 8. The Fort of Bala Hasar This fort was built on raised platform 92 feet from the ground level. There are two gardens near the fort. 2.4 Economy of Pakistan The economy of Pakistan is the 27th largest in the world in nominal terms and 47th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity. Pakistan has a semi-industrialized economy, which mainly encompasses textiles, chemicals, food processing, agriculture and other industries. Growth poles of Pakistans economy are situated along the Indus River; diversified economies of Karachi and Punjabs urban centers coexist with lesser developed areas in other parts of the country. The economy has suffered in the past from decades of internal political disputes, a fast growing population, mixed levels of foreign investment, and a costly, ongoing confrontation with neighboring India. Foreign exchange reserves are bolstered by steady worker remittances, but a growing current account deficit driven by a widening trade gap as import growth outstrips export expansion could draw down reserves and dampen GDP growth in the medium term. Stock market In the first four years of the twenty-first century, Pakistans KSE 100 Index was the best-performing stock market index in the world as declared by the international magazine Business Week. The stock market capitalization of listed companies in Pakistan was valued at $5,937 million in 2005 by the World Bank. But in 2008, after the General Elections, uncertain political environment, rising militancy along western borders of the country, and mounting inflation and current account deficits resulted in the steep decline of the Karachi Stock Exchange. As a result, the corporate sector of Pakistan has declined dramatically in recent times. However the market bounced back strongly in 2009 and the trend continues in 2011. Demographics With a per capita GDP of over $3000 in 2006 compared with $2600 in 2005 in 2005 the World Bank considers Pakistan a medium-income country, it is also recorded as a Medium Development Country on the Human Development Index 2007. Pakistan has a large informal economy, which the government is trying to document and assess. Approximately 56% of adults are literate, and life expectancy is about 64 years. The population, about 168 million in 2007, is growing at about 1.80%. Relatively few resources in the past had been devoted to socio-economic development or infrastructure projects. Inadequate provision of social services, high birth rates and immigration from nearby countries in the past have contributed to a persistence of poverty. An influential recent study concluded that the fertility rate peaked in the 1980s, and has since fallen sharply. Pakistan has a family-income Gini index of 41, close to the world average of 39. Employment The high population growth in the past few decades has ensured that a very large number of young people are now entering the labor market. Even though it is among the seven most populous Asian nations, Pakistan has a lower population density than Bangladesh, Japan, India, and the Philippines. In the past, excessive red tape made firing from jobs, and consequently hiring, difficult. Significant progress in taxation and business reforms has ensured that many firms now are not compelled to operate in the underground economy. In late 2006, the government launched an ambitious nationwide service employment scheme aimed at disbursing almost $2 billion over five years. Mean wages were $0.98 per manhour in 2009.Rate of unemployment is 25%. High inflation and limited wage growth have drawn more women into the workforce to feed their families, in spite of cultural resistance and domestic abuse over the issue. Tourism Tourism in Pakistan has been stated as being the tourism industrys next big thing. Pakistan, with its diverse cultures, people and landscapes has attracted 0.7 million tourists to the country, almost double to that of a decade ago. Pakistans tourism industry was in its heyday during the 1970s when the country received unprecedented amounts of foreign tourists, thanks to the Hippie trail. The main destinations of choice for these tourists were the Khyber Pass, Peshawar, Karachi, Lahore, Swat, Quetta, Gwadar and Rawalpindi. The countrys attraction range from the ruin of civilization such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Taxila, to the Himalayan hill stations, which attract those interested in winter sports. Pakistan is home to several mountain peaks over 7000 m, which attracts adventurers and mountaineers from around the world. The north part of Pakistan has many old fortresses, ancient architecture and the Hunza and Chitral valley, home to small pre-Islamic Animist Kalasha community claiming descent from Alexander the Great. The romance of the historic Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province is timeless and legendary, Punjab province has the site of Alexanders battle on the Jhelum River and the historic city of Lahore, Pakistans cultural capital, with many examples of Mughal architecture such as Badshahi Masjid, Shalimar Gardens, Tomb of Jahangir and the Lahore Fort. Before the Global economic crisis, Pakistan received more than 500,000 tourists annually. Tourism in Pakistan is still a growing industry. Major attracti ons today include ruins of Indus valley civilization and mountain resorts in the Himalayas. Himalayan and Karakoram Range. 2.5 Currency System in Pakistan Rupee The basic unit of currency is the Rupee, ISO code PKR and abbreviated Rs, which is divided into 100 paisas. Currently the newly printed 5,000 rupee note is the largest denomination in circulation. Recently the SBP has introduced all new design notes of Rs. 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000, and 5000 denomination, while the design work of Rs.10,000 note is in progress which will help the banking industry in keeping few notes in saving accounts. The new notes have been designed using the euro technology and are made in eye-catching bright colours and bold, stylish designs. Dollar-Rupee exchange rate The Pakistani Rupee was pegged to the Pound sterling until 1982, when the government of General Zia-ul-Haq, changed it to managed float. As a result, the rupee devalued by 38.5% between 1982/83 many of the industries built by his predecessor suffered with a huge surge in import costs. After years of appreciation under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and despite huge increases in foreign aid the Rupee depreciated. Foreign exchange rate The Pakistani rupee depreciated against the US dollar until around the start of the 21st century, when Pakistans large current-account surplus pushed the value of the rupee up versus the dollar. Pakistans central bank then stabilized by lowering interest rates and buying dollars, in order to preserve the countrys export competitiveness. Foreign exchange reserves Pakistan maintains foreign reserves with State Bank of Pakistan. The currency of the reserves was solely US dollar incurring speculated losses after the Dollar prices fell during 2005, forcing the then Governor SBP Ishrat Hussain to step down. In the same year the SBP issued an official statement proclaiming diversification of reserves in currencies including Euro and Yen, withholding ratio of diversification. In October 2007, at the end of Prime Minister Shaukat Azizs tenure, Pakistan raised back its Foreign Reserves to $16.4 billion. Pakistans trade deficit was at $13 billion, exports grew to $18 billion, revenue generation increased to become $13 billion and the country attracted foreign investment of $8.4 billion. However, following the international credit crisis and spikes in crude oil prices Pakistans economy could not withstand the pressure and on October 11, 2008 State Bank of Pakistan reported that countrys foreign exchange reserves had gone down by $571.9 Million to $7749.7 Million. The foreign exchange reserves had declined more by $10 billion to an alarming rate of $6.59 billion. In July 2011, the State Bank of Pakistan reported reserves to hit an all time high of $18.25 billion. 2.6 Foreign Trade Investment Foreign direct investment in Pakistan soared by 180.6 per cent year-on-year to US$2.22 billion and portfolio investment by 276 per cent to $407.4 million during the first nine months of fiscal year 2006, the State Bank of Pakistan reported on April 24. During July-March 2005-06, FDI year-on-year increased to $2.224 billion from only $792.6 million and portfolio investment to $407.4 million, whereas it was $108.1 million in the corresponding period last year, according to the latest statistics released by the State Bank. Pakistan has achieved FDI of almost $8.4 billion in the financial year 06/07, surpassing the government target of $4 billion. Foreign investment had significantly declined by 2010, dropping by 54.6% due to Pakistans political instability and weak law and order, according to the Bank of Pakistan. Pakistan is now the most investment-friendly nation in South Asia. Business regulations have been profoundly overhauled along liberal lines, especially since 1999. Most barriers to the flow of capital and international direct investment have been removed. Foreign investors do not face any restrictions on the inflow of capital, and investment of up to 100% of equity participation is allowed in most sectors. Unlimited remittance of profits, dividends, service fees or capital is now the rule. Business regulations are now among the most liberal in the region. This was confirmed by the World Banks Ease of Doing Business Index report published in September 2009 ranking Pakistan at 85th well ahead of neighbors like China at 89th and India at 133rd. Pakistan is attracting an increasingly large amount of private equity and was the ranked as number 20 in the world based on the amount of private equity entering the nation. Pakistan has been able to attract a large portion of the global private equity investments because of economic reforms initiated in 2003 that have provided foreign investors with greater assurances for the stability of the nation and their ability to repatriate invested funds in the future. Tariffs have been reduced to an average rate of 16%, with a maximum of 25%. The privatization process, which started in the early 1990s, has gained momentum, with most of the banking system privately owned, and the oil sector targeted to be the next big privatization operation. The recent improvements in the economy and the business environment have been recognized by international rating agencies such as Moodys and Standard and Poors. Society Of Pakistan 3.1 Islam Islam is adept by the majority of Pakistanis and governs their personal, political, economic and legal lives, among certain obligations for Muslims are to pray five times a day at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening, Friday is the Muslim holy day. Everything is closed during the holy month of Ramadan all Muslims must fast from dawn to dusk and are only permitted to work six hours per day. Fasting includes no eating, drinking, cigarette smoking, or gum chewing. 3.2 The Family The extended family is the basis of the social structure and individual identity; It includes the nuclear family, immediate relatives, distant relatives, tribe members, friends, and neighbors, loyalty to the family comes before other social relationships, even business. Nepotism is viewed positively, since it guarantees hiring people who can be trusted, which is crucial in a country where working with people one knows and trusts is of primary importance. The family is more private than in many other cultures. Female relatives are protected from outside influences. It is considered inappropriate to ask questions about a Pakistanis wife or other female relatives. Families are quite large by western standards, often having up to 6 children. 3.3 Hierarchical Society Pakistan is a hierarchical society. People are respected because of their age and position. Older people are viewed as wise and are granted respect. In a social situation, they are served first and their drinks may be poured for them. Elders are introduced first, are provided with the choicest cuts of meat, and in general are treated much like royalty. Pakistanis expect the most senior person, by age or position, to make decisions that are in the best interest of the group. Titles are very important and denote respect. It is expected that you will use a persons title and their surname until invited to use their first name. 3.4 Population density in Pakistan The Population density in Pakistan was last reported at 225.19 in 2010, according to a World Bank report published in 2012. Density of Population is defined as the number of persons per square kilometre. It is an important index of population which shows concentration of population in a particular area. That is, Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers. According to present census, Karachi Division is the most densely populated division in Pakistan. Its density of population is more than 2000 persons per square kilometer. Baluchistan province is the largest according to area, but it is thinnest according to population. 3.5 Education Education in Pakistan is divided into five levels: primary which grades one through five; middle which grades six through eight; high which grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate; intermediate which grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate; and university programs leading to graduate and advanced degrees. All academic education institutions are the responsibility of the provincial governments. The federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and some financing of research. English medium education is to be extended, on a phased basis, to all schools across the country. Through various educational reforms, by the year 2015, the ministry of education expects to attain 100% enrolment levels amongst primary school aged children, and a literacy rate of 86% amongst people aged over 10. According to the Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) Survey 2010-11 and last PSLM 2008-09, the literacy rate for the population (10 years and above) is 58 percent during 2010-11, as compared to 57 percent in 2008-09 . Literacy remains much higher in urban areas than in rural areas and much higher for men than for women. Province wise data suggest that Punjab leads with 60 percent literacy followed by Sindh with 59 percent, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with 50 percent and Balochistan with 41 percent. The Gross Enrolment Rates at the primary level excluding katchi for the age group 5-9 years at National level during 2010-11 increased slightly to 92 percent from 91 percent in 2008-09. Amongst the provinces, Punjab shows a marginal increase from 97 percent in 2008-09 to 98 percent in 2010-11. Sindh remained stable with 84 percent, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa improved from 87 percent to 89 percent and Balochistan declined slightly from 75 percent to 74 percent in 2010-11. The Net primary level enrolment rates at the National/Provincial level for the age group 5-9 years. The NER at the National level during 2010-11 slightly decreased to 56 percent from 57 percent in 2008-09. Punjab shows a decrease from 62 percent in 2008-09 to 61 percent in 2010-11. Sindh also shows decrease from 54 percent to 53 percent in 2010-2011, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa witnessed a decrease from 52 percent to 51 percent and Balochistan improved from 44 percent in 2008-9 to 47 percent in 2010-11. The overall number of enrolments during 2010-11 were 39900.3 thousands as compared to 38202.0 thousands during the same period last year. This shows an increase of 4.4 percent. It is estimated to increase to 41596.5 thousands during 2011-12. The number of institutes stood at 227.8 thousand during 2010-11 as compared to 228.4 thousand during the same period 2009-10. However, the number is estimated to increase to 228.3 thousand during 2011-12. The number of teachers during 2010-11 were 1409.4 thousand as compared to 1386.1 thousand during the same period 2009-10 showing an increase of 1.7 percent. This number is estimated to increase further to 1445.0 thousand during the year 2011-12. A total of 134,118 youth received vocational and technical training under the Presidents Funni Maharat Programme and Prime Ministers Hunermand Pakistan Programme. HEC is also playing its role in running different scholarship programmes to enhance the academic qualification at various levels on merit basis in line with requirement. During the period 2008-12 a number of 3996 scholarships were awarded under different programmes,3572 scholars proceeded to avail these programmes on merit basis and a number of 1650 scholars completed their studies. 3.6 Rural Society Pakistan is an agriculture country and 80% of its people form the rural population of the country. The villages, towns and small cities form the rural areas of Pakistan. Their main profession is cultivation and ploughing. The entire population of Pakistan is scattered and resides in villages, towns and big cities. They pursue different professions to earn their livelihood. Village is the most important and pivotal centre of rural life of Pakistan. Our villages badly lack in civic amenities. There is no proper system of drainage. The drinking water and electricity are not available in a large number of our villages. There are no hospitals, schools, post offices and markets in most of the villages making the life difficult and unhygienic. The village population, due to the difficult living environs in the villages, keeps on migrating to urban areas where better facilities of social life and brighter chances of earning sustenance are available. However, the Government is very much alive to the problems of rural areas. The Government is making sincere endeavours to improve the conditions of rural areas. Modern facilities of health and communication are being provided in the rural areas. Roads, dispensaries, schools, post offices and shopping centres have been provided at Government level. The facility of drinking water and electricity has been made available to a number of villages. 3.7 Urban Society Urban areas in Pakistan completely differ from rural areas in the life pattern. The urban areas are the centre of social life with greater facilities and amenities of life. The urban population of Pakistan represents about a third of the total. Two cities have a dominating position Karachi and Lahore. Since the 1960s, government policy has been directed towards the dispersal of industry, which had become heavily concentrated in Karachi. As a consequence, urban growth has been more evenly distributed among several cities. Rapid and unplanned urban expansion has been parallel by deterioration in living conditions, particularly in the housing conditions of lower income groups. Many urban households are unable to pay rent for the cheapest form of available housing and live in makeshift shacks. Water supply and sewerage system are inadequate, and in many areas residents have to share communal water taps. Inadequate urban transport is also a major problem. The urban areas, unlike rural areas, are well-planned and well-built with modern residential colonies. The big cities, which form the portion of our urban areas, are the centers of high modern education. A large number of prestigious educational institutions are situated in the big cities which attract the students from all parts of the country. The urban areas have become the centre of social activity because of their multifarious aspects of social life. The industrial progress and the location of Government and other departments in the urban areas have made these areas prosperous and progressing. 3.8 Difference between Rural and Urban Society of Pakistan Function Villages and towns differ in function. Villages are usually engaged in primary activities, including farming, animal keeping, lumbering, fishing etc. Towns are engaged in secondary and tertiary activities, like manufacturing, trade, transport, telecommunications, education, medical treatment and other activities. However, these two sets of activities are not exclusively confined to rural and urban areas. Shops, transportation services, educational and medical facilities are found in rural areas, too. Similarly, there are vegetable fields within Karachi, Lahore and other major cities. It is more a question of the predominance of one set of activities over the other. As a consequence, the line of distinction between a small town and a large village is difficult to determine. Lifestyle Some specialists believe that lifestyle is a distinguishing feature of villages and towns. According to them, close contact with other members of the community is a distinctive feature of rural life. The inhabitants of a village, for example, usually know each other personally. In urban areas, on the other hand, relationships tend to be impersonal; urban areas are so highly populated that most people do not even know who their neighbours are. This is case in large urban centres like Karachi. However, even in places like Karachi, there are pockets in the city where people who belong to the same community or village live. In such areas people know each other and have closer contact with their neighbours. In small towns, which are in reality overgrown villages, most people known one another as well. It is also argued that while village life is traditional, urban life is rational. This is not entirely the case in Pakistan. Most of the urban population in Pakistan has a strong rural background. Although the use of urban facilities changes their way of living, it does not change their way of thinking much. In Pakistan, the lifestyles of the rich and poor differ far more than the lifestyles of city and village dwellers. The objective application of lifestyle as a factor for distinguishing between villages and towns is therefore difficult. Population Another factor used to distinguish between villages and towns is population. Although this criterion is applied in many countries, there is no agreement on size. In Canada, for example, a settlement with a population of more than 1,000 is considered urban, in Japan more than 30,000 and in Pakistan, 5,000. In Pakistan, a settlement can also call itself a town if it has a two committee or cantonment that controls electricity, the water supply and drainage. For example, Ziarat in Balochistan had a population of 619 in 1998, but it was still classified as a town because it had these amenities. However, there are only ten towns with populations of less than 5,000 out of a total 478 urban centres in Pakistan. 3.9 The Status of Women in Pakistan In Pakistan the story of a womans deprivations start even before her birth, where most of the girl fetuses are aborted. The lucky ones who survive are mostly unwanted children. Their life is a journey of subordination. While being very young her parents, grandparents, elder family females, family males, and brothers decide for them on matters ranging from the very thinking to decisions and choices. The most women in Pakistan do not have any choices starting from choice meals to choice males. Before marriages they are under strict watching eyes and are always thought doubtful in character especially when ones are school going, smiling on other males. In this secondary status treatment and doubts their marriages are arranged by the families. After marriage, her husband and her in-laws get hold of her reins and decide matters on her behalf; like shall she or shall she not have a child every year, or whether she would produce only boys, or whether she can seek independent employment and so on. Finally when she becomes old and her husband gets weak or may have gone already, it is her son or sons who decide her fate in the declining years of her life. As if this is not enough, the whole society acts as an oppressor, browbeating her into obedience. Thus, the word woman in Pakistan is synonymous with endurance. She is simply forced to accept certain bare facts of life once she grows up to be a woman. Be it on streets, or for that matter in restaurants, a woman is first and foremost required to be alert. It is best to try and not notice, women are told. According to Hina Jilani, Lawyer and Human Rights Activist, the right to life of women in Pakistan is conditional on their obeying social norms and traditions. In addition to that, women in Pakistan face all kinds of gross violence and abuse at the hands of the male perpetrators, family members, and state agents. Multiple forms of violence include rape, domestic abuse as spousal murder, mutilation, burning and disfiguring faces by acid, beatings, ritual honor-killings, and custodial abuse and torture. According to a report by Amnesty International, several hundred women and girls die each year in so-called honor-killings in Pakistan, in a backdrop to government inaction. She is killed like a bird in family feuds to create evidence of illicit connections and cover them under the garb of grave and sudden provocation to escape severe punishment. The practice of Summary-killing of a woman suspected of an illicit liaison, known as Karo Kari in Sindh and Balochistan, is known to occur in all parts of the country. Karis (the females suspected of illicit relationships), remain dishonored even after death. Their bodies are thrown in rivers or buried in special hidden Kari graveyards. Nobody mourns for them or honors their memory by performing their relevant rights. Karos (the males suspected of illicit relationships), by contrast are reportedly buried in the communal graveyards. The promise made by the countrys Chief Executive in April 2000, that all honor killings would be treated as murders has yet to be converted into anything nearing reality. Women who report rape or sexual harassment encounter a series of obstacles. These include not only the police, who resist filing their claims and misreport their statements but also the medico-legal doctors, who focus more on their virginity status and lack the training and expertise to conduct adequate examinations. Furthermore, women who file charges open themselves up to the possibility of being prosecuted for illicit sex if they fail to prove rape under the 1979 Hudood Ordinance which criminalizes adultery and fornication. As a result, when women victims of violence resort to the judicial system for redress, they are more likely to find further abuse and victimization. As far as domestic violence is concerned, it is the most under-reported crime because it is generally condoned by social customs and considered as a private family matter. Culture Of Pakistan After the independence from Great Britain in 1947, took part of the land of India and created Pakistan as a separate Islamic nation its estimated that approximately 97 percent of population are Muslim but members of several minority religions live there including Hindus, Sikhs, parsi, and Buddhists. Culture of Pakistan is very diverse it stems it stems from the fact that what is now Pakistan has in the past been invaded and occupied by many people like as the white Huns, Persians, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and various others groups. There are different in culture of Pakistan. Its among the different ethnic groups in matters in their dress food and religion and also pre Islamic customs differ from Islamic practices. Pakistan is the first region of south Asia to receive the full impact of Islam and developed Islamic identity. Pakistan geography is the mixture of south Asia, central Asia and west Asia so the culture of Pakistan is unique then the
Friday, September 20, 2019
The term masculinity can be defined as the set of traits or characteristics typically for men. There are arguments to the word Ã¢â¬ËMasculinityÃ¢â¬â¢. It is independent of the understanding that man is connected to masculinity. Like men can be feminine, women can be masculine. It is the nature of masculinity is what makes someone masculine, not their gender. (Masculinity movie) Masculinity can be divided into degrees of comparison- more masculine or most masculine. Ã¢â¬ËCrisis of Male Identity in Ã¢â¬ËFather, Son and Holy War,Ã¢â¬â¢ Rustam Barucha in Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 30, No. 29, July 1, 1995. BIBLIOGRAPHY Man, manhood, masculinity the terms are closely related to each other. Does one Ã¢â¬ËbecomeÃ¢â¬â¢ a man or is he born one? Are Ã¢â¬ËmenÃ¢â¬â¢ necessarily masculine? Ã¢â¬Å"Indeed is explained that some men may reject their masculinity on ideological or sexual grounds. It is often assumed that homosexuals for example are not men they are feminine. Yet gay and homosexual cultures, however unofficial, are marked by strong masculine codes. So masculinity in these cases becomes a style or representation? Thus to answer the relationship of masculinity to other nouns of man and manhood the basic element of purusatva applying to Indian men should be considered. This aspect can/ should be speculated from multiple dimension of socially and politically that develops into specific ways that is patriarchal intrusion.Ã¢â¬ (Barucha, 1995) Predominant masculinity The relation of Lord Rama and Hanuman can also be woven as an example of man to man relation. Hanuman is considered as the passionate devotee of Lord Rama. Though Lord Rama was the king of Ayodhya, he was in constant need of Hanuman. Hanuman considered himself subordinate of Lord Rama. But the relation that buil... ...nd/father. Law is equal for both man and woman. But the reason for grant of divorce by the plea of woman beds on the fact of more cruelty and crime against woman. The cases of domestic violence ingrain the law to take stringent actions against the men of the society. Under Section 354 in The Indian Penal Code, 1860 The law says, Ã¢â¬Å"Assault or criminal force to woman with intent to outrage her modesty. -- Whoever assaults or uses criminal force to any woman, intending to outrage or knowing it to be likely that he will there by outrage her modesty, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both.Ã¢â¬ This explains the crisis man face under the Indian jurisdiction. Though powerful, a man is bound by the laws. The same judicial system raises the hierarchy of woman in the eyes of the law.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Training Informal and Formal Training and Development Informal Training and Development Informal training and development is rather casual and incidental. Typically, there are no specified training goals as such, nor are their ways to evaluate if the training actually accomplished these goals or not. This type of training and development occurs so naturally that many people probably aren't aware that they're in a training experience at all. Probably the most prominent form of informal training is learning from experience on the job. Examples are informal discussions among employees about a certain topic, book discussion groups, and reading newspaper and journal articles about a topic. A more recent approach is sending employees to hear prominent speakers, sometimes affectionately called "the parade of stars". Informal training is less effective than formal training if one should intentionally be learning a specific area of knowledge or skill in a timely fashion. Hardly any thought is put into what learning is to occur and whether that learning occurred or not. (However, this form of training often provides the deepest and richest learning because this form is what occurs naturally in life.) Formal Training and Development Formal training is based on some standard "form". Formal training might include: a) declaring certain learning objectives (or an extent of knowledge, skills or abilities that will be reached by learners at the end of the training), b) using a variety of learning methods to reach the objectives and then b) applying some kind(s) of evaluation activities at the end of the training. The methods and means of evaluation might closely associate with the learning objectives, or might not. For example, courses, seminars and workshops often have a form -- but it's arguable whether or not their training methods and evaluation methods actually assess whether the objectives have been met or not. Formal, Systematic Training and Development Systematic, formal training involves carefully proceeding through the following phases: a) Assessing what knowledge, skills and /or abilities are needed by learners; b) Designing the training, including identifying learning goals and associated objectives, training methods to reach the objectives, and means to carefully evaluate whether the objectives have been reached or not; c) Developing the training methods and materials; d) Implementing the training; and e) Evaluating whether objectives have been reached or not, in addition to the quality of the training methods and materials themselves A systematic approach is goal-oriented (hopefully, to produce results for the organization and/or learners), with the results of each phase being used by the next phase.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
"Muddle In A Puddle": Comparison of Essay To My Life While reading the essay "Muddle in a Puddle," some very colorful images came to my mind about what I have done in my life that compare to this particular piece. Of all the times I have embarrassed myself by sticking my foot in my mouth, or by making a fool of myself by playing with a strange toy in the toy department, only to my surprise, everyone in the toy department was laughing at me. As Robert Herrick mentions in his poem "_O how that glittering taketh me!" (100 Best Loved Poems, 12) That's how I felt at that time. All of us have experienced things like this in our lives, and it is strange what makes it so interesting to watch people make fools of themselves, as mentioned by Baker in this quote, "...and any one could could have spoken out as one human might speak to another....not one had said that." (156) Yet another piece really spoke to me about the ways people communicate on a daily basis. "I led the Pigeons to the Flag" was very exact to the feelings I have of miscommunications and mishearings. I can remember times in which I have done the very same things that were mentioned in this essay, like singing a tune over and over out loud, then looking over the lyrics later. Only to my knowledge, my version of "Cannonball" was actually "Panama." The way we hear and say things is also very influential in the way others hold us in their standings. If someone catches us slipping up, they might think we are weird, or stupid. It could also be a good ice-breaker for a good friendly relationship. Sometimes not. It just depends where the people are from, and what the situations are at the time of the incident. I can remember a time, while at work at the funeral home, I was discussing school with a bereaving individual. I was trying to comfort this person, as I noticed she was very disturbed over the loss of a friend. It was around the time of finals, and she asked how they were going. I said "they're killing me!" Immediately I realized that I had said the right thing the wrong way. A million thoughts passed through my mind at that moment, as Baker had also mentioned. What was I to say to recover from this terrible thing. Change the subject? Repeat the phrase replacing killing with another mourning-friendly verb? Its hard to know what you can say around certain groups of people, or in
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Analyse and interpret data Maintain Qantas/JetstarÃ¢â¬â¢s combined domestic market share of 65% Match capacity with demand sustaining loads around 80% Grow Jetstar in Asia Increase internet sales Increase customer service standards Enhance complementary portfolio businesses like Freight Reduce losses of Qantas international Transform Qantas International for focusing on right aircraft, right route, network optimisation and margin improvement Grow their frequent flyer program members and partners Market Segmentation and Selection of the Target Market QantasÃ¢â¬â¢ market segmentation is complex because each segment has distinctive and different needs and expectations, such as the need to make stop-overs, the ability to pay fare levels and expectations in terms of in-flight service and comfort. Qantas mainly uses behavioural segmentation to select its target markets. Buyers are distinguished according to trip purpose e. . business and leisure/non-business travellers. Marketing Strategies Positioning Formulating the Marketing Mix Product Strategies Scheduling features Comfort-based features I ne Qantas Frequent Hyer scneme (H- Intangible benefits Brand name Price Cost plus margin: Qantas determines the cost of production and then adds a margin for profit Market: most fares at Qantas are determined by the market, where demand is matched with supply Competition based: monitoring what other airlines such as Virgin Blue are charging Pricing Strategies Price penetration Full Fares Promotional Fares Loss Leading Promotiono Advertising Sales promotions particularly in periods of subdued demand. When Qantas first launched Jetstar it released 100,000 tickets at $49. Qantas also launches a two-for- one ticket sale, which allowed a second passenger to fly for the cost of taxes and charges. Personal selling Publicity Place/Distribution Distribution to end customers is achieved by Qantas in two ways, direct and indirect. DIRECT Ã¢â¬â via its own retail outlets INDIRECT Ã¢â¬â via sales agents People Because most customers have direct contact with Qantas employees, especially on he ground, the impression they give has a big impact on how Qantas is perceived. Qantas staff must have appropriate personal attributes and training for their Jobs. Qantas spends more that $275 million a year on staff training to ensure a very positive interaction between its customers. Processes Booking flights online Online check in Mobile check in cnecK In KIOSK Physical Evidence QantasÃ¢â¬â¢ customers are influences by QantasÃ¢â¬â¢ signage, its website, its terminals, its lounges, etc. E-Marketing uses an electronic medium to perform marketing activities, e. g. website, email. Global Marketing is the use of marketing activities across national boundaries. Qantas uses: Global Branding Standardisation Customisation Implementing, Monitoring and Controlling the Marketing Plan Qantas has a systematic base for continually monitoring, controlling and adjusting its marketing activities using the following tools: Developing a financial forecast of revenue using statistical models, past sales data, executive Judgement and surveys of customer buying intentions. It then estimates costs such as market research costs, promotion costs, product development costs and distribution costs. Comparing actual and planned results using a number of performance criteria.
Monday, September 16, 2019
The film adaptation of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A Midsummer NightÃ¢â¬â¢s DreamÃ¢â¬ is one that gains three out of five stars in my book. With the director Michael Hoffman taking the fun and magical world of fairies from ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s comedy and turning it into a rather serious tale, the movie, released on May 14, 1999 was given a new twist on its own.The story is about a complicated love affair where Demetrius and Lysander both want Hermia but she only has eyes for Lysander. This is made worse with HermiaÃ¢â¬â¢s father wanting Demetrius to be his son-in-law. Helena, HermiaÃ¢â¬â¢s friend, on the other hand wants Demetrius.Hermia and Lysander plan to flee from the city under the cover of darkness but are pursued by an enraged Demetrius who is himself pursued by an enraptured Helena. In the forest, the king and queen of the faeries, Oberon and Titania, are having a loverÃ¢â¬â¢s quarrel over a servant boy.OberonÃ¢â¬â¢s mischief-maker, Puck, runs loose with a flower which causes people to fall in love with the first thing they see upon waking. In the twists that created unexpected pairings, the lovers are finally brought together rightly, thanks in part to the bungling work of Puck.The performance of Kevin Kline, who played Nick Bottom, has brought an element of compassion from the audience even in the light of the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s buffoonery. Kline gives the comic relief character more life with his proclivity to exaggeration. Rupert Everett (Oberon) was radiant as the king, but gave no standout performance and looked a little deadpan in his acting. His partner, Michelle Pfieffer (Titania) looked so indifferent in her performance but still gets the beauty vote among the members of the cast.Stanley Tucci (Puck) has played the playful role of Puck well, seeming to enjoy the movie heÃ¢â¬â¢s playing in and stays comical all the way. Calista Flockhart, playing Helen, was a convincing lovesick ragdoll who clarified how pathetic the character re ally was.She was able to handle a very classic role with an enthusiastic energy only rivaled by her co-actor, Tucci. Hermia, played by Anna Friel, was average in her performance, and her mud-based fight scene with Helena was probably the most convincing part of her acting. Dominic West did not give any standout performances and was average all throughout the entire movie. Demetius, played by Christian Bale, had done his duty as an actor playing his part and did not rise above his role and made the character larger than life.The whole movie is devoid of any hi-tech special effects that we are constantly bombarded with in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s movie industry. Some of the evidence of this is BottomÃ¢â¬â¢s donkey ears and a great amount of facial hair; the wings of the faeries seem like strap-on contraptions that are so stiff and unrealistic.The forest setting, however, served its purpose, which is to have a magical, unearthly quality even though it looked more like a set than a real forest. Make-up and costume design were effective in creating the strange creatures found in the story, despite the lack of technology.Most of the costumes for the humans, however, seem ready to be ripped off from their bodies as were suggested in some of the scenes making the movie very sexually suggestive.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Outline I. Topic: The United States Homeland Security and The War on Terrorism II. Thesis Statement: Homeland Security plays a major role in the war on terror. Topic Sentences 1. The Homeland Security Act of 2002 reduces the vulnerability of the United States to terrorism. 2. The Department of Homeland Security was created for the war on terror. 3. The role of the Homeland Security Committee. 4. The history of the United States on foreign policy. 5. How terrorists communicate what they want to accomplish. 6. The study of Foreign Intelligence. 7. The Increasing Need for Domestic Intelligence. 8. How security benefits from intelligence. 9. The United States is strengthening our Nuclear Security. 10. How the U.S. is fighting the war on terror. 11. Conclusion The Homeland Security Act Created by President George W. Bush after the 9/11 attacks the United States Department of Homeland Security is the largest federal government reorganization since the Department of Defense was created via the National Security Act of 1947. The new department assumed a large number of services, offices and other organizations previously conducted in other departments, such as the Customs Service, Coast Guard, and U.S. Secret Service. The Department of Homeland Security was created for the war on terror The primary mission of the Department is to prevent terrorist attacks within theÃ United States. Homeland Security reduces the vulnerability of the United States to terrorism. It also minimizes the damage, and assists in the recovery, from terrorist attacks that do occur within the United States. The role of the Homeland Security Committee Homeland Security Committee States that The Committee on Homeland Security was created by the U.S. House of Representatives in 2002 in the aftermath of September 11, 2001. The Committee was first formed as a select, non-permanent Committee, to provide Congressional oversight over the development of the Department of Homeland Security. The Committee was made permanent when it was designated as a Standing Committee of the House on January 4, 2005, the first day of the 109th Congress. The Committee will be made up of 21 Democratic Members of Congress there is currently one vacancy, led by Chairman Bennie G. Thompson (D-MS), and 13 Republican Members of Congress, led by Ranking Member Peter T. King (R-NY). Frances Townsend currently heads the committee. Trudeau states that Ã¢â¬Å"President George W. Bush said WeÃ¢â¬â¢re under attack because we love freedom, is why weÃ¢â¬â¢re under attack. And our enemy hates freedom. They hate and we love. We differ from our enemy because we love. We not only love our freedoms and love our values, we love life itself. Our enemy hates innocent life.Ã¢â¬ (2002) The history of the United States on Foreign Policy Because of its role as a major world superpower, the United States must carefully consider its national foreign policy goals. Although they may be carried out very differently from administration to administration, the primary goals of American foreign policy are most effective when they remain constant over time. Historically, the United States has pursued a number of foreign policy goals, but one goal has been and continues to be a primary goal of every generation is national security. The Realists point to several factors that demonstrate the importance of national security. They begin by declaring that humans are naturally aggressive and instinctively fight one another. This human tendency reveals the inevitable nature of war. The Cold War which was a period of strong change starting in 1945 ledÃ America into a geopolitical mindset for the first time in American history. This period made national security and military affairs the center of focus for America. This gave way to the idea of national security being a strong focal point of the American agenda. It made it equally as important as anything else did on the agenda. Also the United States was now a state of mobilization. The armed forces would now and always be at a striking force. All of the changes were something new to the people of America but it was an idea that was not only accepted it was expected. The same rings true with 9/11 in relation to the role of America. Our sole focus is national security and to put our military at a point of being called upon any second. The United States has embraced the idea that things have changed and are willing to do whatever possible to prevent future events of this magnitude. Another characteristic that the Cold War Period and 9/11 hold in common is that both were a pervasive political and military competition that dominated international politics. On September 11, 2001 terrorism became a reality! There is no way for the United States to prevent future attacks on Americans without working as a coalition force with the other nations to identify, track, and eliminate terrorist networks around the world. One of the main problems with fighting a war on terrorism is that the nations of the world have become accustomed to working alone as individuals vice working together. The United States will need to change its approach in order to conquer the worldwide threat of terrorism. The way to defeat terrorism at home and around the world is to form an international counter-terrorist task force. In order to prevent future acts of terrorism on the United States and around the globe, the free-nations of the world will have to come together and form a large task force to counter against the terrorist threat. The main problem with forming a world wide counter-terrorist headquarters is that there is no one single definition of terrorism. Each country has a definition of the word Ã¢â¬Å"terrorismÃ¢â¬ based on the political stance that the country takes on use of force. The United Nations must first come up with a clear definition of terrorism in order to facilitate the creation of an international counter-terrorist organization. How Terrorists communicate what they want to accomplish Terrorists kill for a reason. The reason is to communicate a message that will instill fear in the enemy government and demoralize it. The strategy of terrorists is to provoke the government into repressive measures in the hope that this will cause a revolt. The Study of Foreign Intelligence The study of foreign intelligence has demonstrated that the purpose of intelligence is to acquire information necessary to apply governmental power with greater precision and that as the need for application of government power increases, so does the need for intelligence. Domestically, terrorist threats to homeland security will be countered by government power used by various domestic security agencies, and the newly created domestic intelligence programs will enable them to apply their powers with greater force and precision. As technological capabilities inevitably grow threats to homeland security will increase in the future, and the need for domestic intelligence will increase. The Increasing Need for Domestic Intelligence Homeland security will require greater levels of domestic intelligence in the future. Foreign intelligence has indicated that the purpose of intelligence both foreign and domestic is to facilitate precise application of governmental power. Countering terrorism has increased the need to collect domestic intelligence, but threats to domestic security will increase even more in the future due to growth in technological capacities. As the use of power increases to counter these threats, domestic intelligence capabilities must also increase so that the power is applied effectively. American officials created a permanent intelligence community to warn policymakers of threats to national security. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor had such a detrimental effect on American perceptions of security that after World War II ended, policymakers decided to create for the first time in the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s history a permanent bureaucracy intended to prevent any future surprise attacks or other strategic surprises. Historically, intelligence capabilities had been organized to provide targeted military information to commanders because losing wars held such disastrous consequences. The United States was the last major power to get into the intelligence analysis business. It was thought that it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ necessary because two great oceans protected America from foreign dangers. Marrin states that The attack on Pearl Harbor and subsequent American involvement in World War II changed the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ need for and use of intelligence. During World War II, the United States increased its overseas presence, and this necessitated the creation of a global intelligence capability commensurate with the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ expanded global role. After World War II ended, American political leaders decided that the United States needed an intelligence agency capable of integrating disparate pieces of information distributed throughout the military and other government agencies to prevent another Pearl Harbor. As a result, in 1947 the Central Intelligence Agency was created to prevent future surprise attacks by focusing on threats to national security. (2003) How security benefits from Intelligence The primary security benefit of intelligence is that it enables power to be applied with greater precision and with less collateral damage. The role of intelligence is the collection and analysis of information to find out who the terrorists are and what they are up to. Knowledge can make the application of power more effective, but knowledge alone is powerless. The benefit of foreign intelligence is easiest to illustrate in the application of military power. Foreign intelligence can also assist in the application of economic and political power. The United States is strengthening our Nuclear Security In the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s we were warn of potential terrorists obtaining and using of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) whether chemical, biological, and nuclear. Chemicals weapons are available to terrorist through homebrew or rogue states. Nuclear terrorism is our biggest worry. Nuclear weapons are more difficult for terrorists to handle. Henderson (2004) states that With so many nuclear warheads being stored under conditions of uncertain security in the former Soviet Union, it is possible terrorists might be able to buy or steal a ready made nuclear weapon. But nuclearÃ warheads have safety interlocks, and it has been proposed that the weapons be fitted with devices that would allow them to be remotely destroyed or disabled if terrorists obtain them. U.S. agencies since the 1900s have sought closer coordination between U.S. and former Soviet Scientists and engineers in order to secure the nuclear stockpiles. How the U.S. is fighting the war on terror We have worked with a number of states around the world to expose plotting Al Qaeda cells. The United States has implemented broad-sweeping, even controversial, steps such as the Patriot Act in an attempt to improve our domestic security. There are three tools that can be used on terrorists. The criminal law and legal system is used to prosecute terrorist suspects. The military can be used to destroy terroristÃ¢â¬â¢s infrastructures. Diplomatic efforts can be used in the hopes that nations can work together to prevent the movement of terrorists around the world. Conclusion After 9/11 the Department of Homeland Security was organized. The primary mission of the Department is to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States. Homeland Security reduces the vulnerability of the United States to terrorism. It also minimizes the damage, and assists in the recovery, from terrorist attacks that do occur within the United States. Intelligence has been used to collect and analysis information to find out who the terrorists are and what they are up to. It is best to see that the United States is taking the proper steps to fight terrorism. Reference: Henderson, H. (2004) Global terrorism, New York, NY: Facts on file, Inc. Homeland Security Retrieved November 25, 2009 http://homeland.house.gov/about/index.asp Marrin, S. (2003) Homeland Security Intelligence Retrieved November 25, 2009 http://www.homelandsecurity.org/journal/Articles/marrin.html Homeland Security Retrieved November 24, 2009 http://www.whitehouse.gov/issues/homeland-security/ Trudeau, G. (2008) The war in quotes p.20 Retrieved November 27, 2009 http://www.ontheissues.org/Celeb/George_W__Bush_Homeland_Security.htm
Saturday, September 14, 2019
KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s main problem was not foreseeing and adapting to market changes of price and competition. Kodak had dominated the photo film market for most of the 1900s until competitors like Fuji began taking market share from Kodak in 1984. Kodak ignored the new threats until the late 1990s, relying on their market dominance. Problem Analysis Kodak offered three product lines to target various market segments as a part of their Funtime strategy to regain market share. Prior to this strategy, Kodak offered only two product lines, Ektar, their superpremium line, and Royal Gold, their premium line. They planned to introduce Funtime film, an economy brand film, which targeted the price sensitive consumer. The target market is the average film user who has little or no education about film, buys strictly on price, and is not influenced by advertising Ã¢â¬â the 50% of buyers that were not brand loyal (40% were film Ã¢â¬Å"samplersÃ¢â¬ ; 10% purchased on price). Gold Plus is the premium brand film and is developed to target average consumers who are already Kodak-loyal or seeking quality photos over price. The superpremium film, Royal GoldÃ¢â¬â¢s target market is professionals, serious amateurs and average consumers who pay the premium for professional grade pictures for Ã¢â¬Å"very specialÃ¢â¬ occasions. (See Appendix A) In the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s main competitors were Fuji of Japan, Agfa of Germany, 3M, Konica of Japan, and Polaroid as a late competitor. Kodak has many ways to differentiate themselves from all of these competitors. As an established photography and film brand, Kodak has dominated 70% of the market share in the U. S. ; where many of their competitors are new to the market. Kodak has not offered a private or economy film line like many other competitors have. In the superpremium tier Fujicolor Reala was targeting advanced amateurs and professionals only while Kodak targeted a more broad segment with their competing Royal Gold line. In the Economy brand tier, Funtime was launched as an economy brand competing with Fujicolor Super G, Konica Super SR, and ScotchColor. Funtime was the only film in this brand tier to be offered only at off-peak film use times and only packaged in value packs. Kodak dominated the film market all through the 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s. They never received any major competition until Fuji began to attack their market share in the 1980s, when they were announced as the official film sponsors of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, Kodak 3 California. Kodak believed their dominance and customer loyalty would continue to carry them as new competitors entered the market and as film prices were beginning to fall. They underestimated their competition and did not react soon enough. It seemed as if Kodak believed that people would not buy another film other than Kodak. By the late 1980s the film market began to see many competitors and KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s market share began to fall. While still the dominant competitor, their market share fell from 76% in 1989 to 70% in 1994, and similarly the average price of film began to fall. While KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s film rolls were in the neighborhood of $3. 50 to $6 per roll, competitors began releasing film under private brands starting at $2. 19. Shortly after the economy film market began to form, Consumer Reports released a quality test of the top 6 films in the market. While Kodak positioned themselves as the superior quality film, Consumer Reports reported that, Ã¢â¬Å"We found most films to be no better or worse than their competitors of the same speedÃ¢â¬ ¦ and will yield prints of comparable quality. KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s standard, Gold Plus, even ranked below FujiÃ¢â¬â¢s economy film. With film market evolving, Discount Merchandiser released a survey in 1991 stating that Ã¢â¬Å"more than 50% of the picture takers in the US claim to know nothing or little about photography, and as a results they tend to view film as a commodity, often buying on price alone. Ã¢â¬ This led Kodak to a major repositioning of its film product line, introducing Funtime film, an economic film line, something Kodak would have never previously considered. Kodak was desperate to recover some of the market share they had recently lost and implemented a new strategy to help recapture some of their market share. They introduced the Funtime Strategy. In this strategy, Kodak would offer 3 lines of film (superpremium, premium and economy). The economy line was new for Kodak since they specialized in high-end photography that was parallel with their high quality brand image. Funtime was to be offered at 20% less than Gold Plus (their premium brand) and offered in limited quantities only twice a year at off-peak film use times, 4 months out of the year. Funtime was only sold in Ã¢â¬Å"valuepacksÃ¢â¬ of two or four rolls of the two most popular speeds, ISO 100 and 200. The major inconsistency with implementing this new strategy was the lack of advertising spent by Kodak; they offered no support and a lack of commitment to Funtime. Kodak was too concerned with maintaining its high profit margins that they were not willing to cannibalize their own market share before the competition did. Kodak 4 Whereas their focus was to regain some market share with their new Funtime line, they replaced their superpremium line with Royal Gold, broadening their Ã¢â¬Å"professionalÃ¢â¬ target market. They emphasized that Royal Gold could be for Ã¢â¬Å"very specialÃ¢â¬ occasions not just professional photography. Kodak spent 40% of its total film-advertising budget on this line and the other 60% on its Gold Plus. The Funtime strategy was a last chance effort to regain market share and compete with private label brands. It seemed that the economy line was introduced too late to recover the shares that were lost. By only offering it twice a year Kodak seemed as if they were not fully committed to this line. The lack of advertising sent a deceitful message. It appeared as if they were hiding the line as to not take away from their other Ã¢â¬Å"qualityÃ¢â¬ lines. They wanted to keep their high quality image while competing in the low end of the market as well. This strategy does not solve their problem of competing with their competitors. The case did not mention any new ways that Kodak tried to differentiate themselves from their competitors or explain to their customers why they thought they were superior to them. Kodak offered 3 main lines of film but did not educate the customer on the difference between the lines. They stated their superpremium, premium and economy lines but did not take time to educate the consumers of the difference between the three lines and how they differentiated from their competition. Since Consumer Reports released a study showing that most film rolls in that time performed similarly and printed pictures of comparable quality. Kodak did not take time to distinguish themselves from this new competition but simply relied on their trusted brand name they had built in the years prior. Before differentiating themselves from their competition they should have reacted immediately to new competition rather than ignore it. Because Kodak was late to react, Fuji was able to easily differentiate themselves from Kodak. Kodak should have viewed FujiÃ¢â¬â¢s sponsoring of the LA Summer Olympics as a threat. They should have immediately started discussion strategies on repositioning themselves to avoid the competition absorbing their market. Kodak was not prepared for the market changes that came. The week of January 25, 1994, KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s stock lost 8% in value. Kodak was used to the large profit margins on film and could not rationalize cannibalizing their own profits by lowering costs due to their rigid management before the whole industry lowered prices. The reality was that the film industry was slowly declining, people viewed photography as a commodity and they were just on the cusp of Kodak 5 the digital era. Kodak was reluctant to come to terms with this new reality. Their competition capitalized on the market changes and private film companies began offering lower cost film of comparable quality. Kodak did not look far enough into the future of the market and were slow to react to competition which is why they failed to remain ahead of their competition and minimize any losses. Alternative Solutions Due to KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s lost market share, lowered stock prices, and declining profit margins, it was evident that the company was headed in a downward spiral. Surviving within the industry, due to film being a commodity product, was not easy, and the company was in dire need to revive its own value. To solve its main problem, not foreseeing and adapting to market changes, we propose five alternative solutions: (1) delve into wholesale market share, (2) better educate customers regarding the productsÃ¢â¬â¢ benefits and values, (3) spend more time on research and development, (4) halting production of the Funtime product, and (5) both educating customers about the productsÃ¢â¬â¢ benefits and values, and spending more time on research and development. Alternative Solution 1 Kodak could sell its film in value packs at wholesale stores, such as Costco or SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Club, in order to regain the market share within the industry. In doing so, this would be a great way for Kodak to tap into market share that had not yet been touched. Film, at this point, had not been sold in larger wholesale packs, and was being sold primarily in smaller groupings, at general retail facilities. Because of the recent upward trend with consumers buying in bulk, wholesale retailers were gaining more loyal customers on a daily basis. By selling within these types of stores, companies were more likely to succeed because this was a retail niche that was evolving, and would give particular brands and products more consumer recognition. Kodak could have taken advantage of the strong market and loyal customers that a wholesale retail company already has. By partnering with Costco, for example, Kodak could become its exclusive film partner. With this type of partnership, Kodak might be able to capitalize on the exclusivity of CostcoÃ¢â¬â¢s film sales. Also, seeing in recent years that Costco has become a very common place for consumers to have their rolls of film developed, and frequently sells film rolls in value packs, it seems to be a one-stop-shop for families who are constantly on-the-go. If Kodak 6 Kodak were to partner successfully with retailers like this, the company would be able to gain further market share and sales, because people would increase their recognition of this particular brand, and could become the go-to brand for most. Wholesale retailers, like Costco, are extremely popular and well-trusted. By associating its image with these companies, Kodak would have a competitive advantage over others within the industry, and could be associated with CostcoÃ¢â¬â¢s positive identity, thus giving itself a positively-positioned image relative to its competitors. The biggest disadvantage in implementing this solution, however, would be in securing a mutually-beneficial partnership with a wholesale retailer. Most wholesalers would not necessarily be likely to commit to an exclusive partnership to one particular brand (in this case, Kodak), simply because they limit their own product availability, and therefore cut into their own sales. Retailers, like Costco and SamÃ¢â¬â¢s Club, focus on having a wide variety of products from which consumers may choose. If wholesalers were to commit exclusively to Kodak, per se, then they could lose out on potential sales from consumers who desire the competing film product. There is not necessarily an inherent benefit for wholesalers with exclusivity. Alternative Solution 2 Apart from selling within wholesale retail locations, another way to regain lost market share is to better educate consumers regarding camera film. Film had become a commodity product to most consumers, and there was little customer loyalty to any particular camera film brand. Differentiation between the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ own products, as well as the competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ products, is an important aspect of any business. However, it seems that Kodak lacked a differentiation strategy and had not communicated to consumers how its products were positioned positively, relative to those of its competitors. Consumers knew Ã¢â¬Å"little or nothing about photography,Ã¢â¬ according to the 1991 survey in Discount Merchandiser. Its lack of educational advertising left customers in the dark, as far as the difference between products available. Because many uneducated customers simply buy based off of price alone, Kodak needs to inform customers why they should pay the premium price, and what benefits come along with paying that premium. No other film companies were educating consumers about value and benefits, so Kodak had an opportunity to capitalize on the lack of knowledge thereof. By educating consumers, they Kodak 7 would become familiar with their film needs, and the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s benefits. Simultaneously, they would also acquaint consumers with the value of their product, when compared to others. As a result, Kodak would create more brand loyalty. Moreover, in the case study, we are told that Kodak offered three types of films: Gold Plus, Royal Gold, and Funtime. To the average consumer, Gold Plus and Royal Gold are far too similar in name, and give off the impression that they are of the same quality. Customers were becoming confused due to the similarity between these two names. By educating the consumers about its products, consumers would begin to understand the value of KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s film relative to competitors, and the inherent differences between its products. However, if this solution were implemented, the likelihood of making a large impact on its own market share would be minimal if implemented by itself. By itself, it would not help repair KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s decline in sales, stock prices, and market share (because of its inability to adapt to market trends). Let aside, this would not address the problem of having been unadaptive, at its core. Educating consumers would likely only work best when paired with another alternative solution. Alternative Solution 3 It was ten years before Kodak responded to the FujiÃ¢â¬â¢s sponsorship of the Olympic Games. Clearly, Kodak should have had a rapid response to this threat. Due to their lack of capitalization and overconfident mindset, Kodak lost a vast amount of their market. Kodak should have recognized that technology would advance sooner rather than later. Instead of only focusing on repositioning their film, they should have also tried to advance the technology of their cameras. The key to a successful business is focusing on the present product, while spending time on researching and developing the future product. Kodak executives should have asked themselves, Ã¢â¬Å"What can we do to get ahead in the market? Ã¢â¬ Seeing that the main problem with Kodak was its inability to anticipate and adapt to future market trends and developments, it should spend more time, efforts, and money on proper product development. This late response resulted in a rapid loss of market share. Had Kodak responded to this with more immediacy, its market share would not have dropped so significantly. To prevent market loss in the future, Kodak should invest more time and money on properly developing Ã¢â¬Å"cash cowÃ¢â¬ products. Prior to the development of Funtime, the products Kodak 8 within KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s camera film portfolio were considered cash cows. Due to negative market rumors, the company intended on creating another cash cow, as to maintain its market share. However, had the company spent more time on researching the camera film industry, it might have noticed that developing another cash cow product was not intelligent. Market research is extremely important in knowing what next steps a company should take, and how to create a strategic business plan. Rather than KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s executives asking themselves Ã¢â¬Å"What can we do to sustain our market share? Ã¢â¬ they should have asked themselves Ã¢â¬Å"What can we do to get ahead in the market? Ã¢â¬ KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy was to boost its existing products as stars, and develop a new product (Funtime) as a cash cow. Accordingly, the star products (Gold Plus and Royal Gold) would be funded and, ultimately, further promoted. In asking the wrong questions, Kodak forged its own demise: Funtime became a question mark product, liquidating revenues made by the existing cash cows. By spending more time on analyzing current trends and advancing technologies, Kodak could develop products that would help it recover lost market share and become a dominating force within the industry. The biggest disadvantage in implementing this, however, would be the risk of product failure. KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s executives would need to make informed decisions regarding whether such developmental risks are worth product failure. Alternative Solution 4 As mentioned in the case study, Funtime film would be offered Ã¢â¬Å"only twice a year at offpeak film use timesÃ¢â¬ . Kodak confused its customers in regards to the value of its product. In the eyes of the consumers, offering a different product only at certain times of the year, with a lower price, brought down the value associated with Kodak film. The case mentions that KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"stock had lost 8% in value on rumors of a price cut on filmÃ¢â¬ . If rumors of a price cut brought down its stock prices, then adding a lower quality product, like Funtime, would also bring down company stock prices. In analyzing KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s products with a BCG Matrix (see Appendix B), Funtime could be viewed as a question mark, whereas each of its other products were cash cows. The market share for lower quality film was not growing and did not generate much cash. Often times, dog products should be divested. Kodak should have quickly determined whether the Funtime Film Kodak 9 would develop into a cash cow or dog. Because Kodak was only selling this product during the off seasons, Funtime could never become a cash cow. While developing Funtime would have been a great solution given normal circumstances, developing a new lower quality product amidst negative market rumors was a risky move. Other companies, such as Fuji and Polaroid, had dog products, and were fighting to become cash cow products. To retain the market share it already has, and since the Funtime product is already developed, though, Kodak should phase out its production. This would turn the product into a dog, and over time, would be fully liquidated. Some foreseeable cons with this solution would be the costs incurred from holding inventory and phasing out a product. This would further cut into company revenues, making it more difficult to return from a decline in stock price. Alternative Solution 5 We believe that a combination of Alternative Solutions 2 and 3 would be an effective solution for Kodak. Education will explain the productsÃ¢â¬â¢ values and benefits, while simultaneously maintaining its exceptional brand image. By educating customers and anticipating future market trends, not only is Kodak able to retain its loyal customers, but positively position themselves in the minds of non-Kodak-loyal film consumers, as well. This, however, only speaks to part of its main problem. Accordingly, this education needs to be aided by proper market analysis, so that Kodak is able to foresee market trends, and is able to react accordingly. The company must focus equally on both the present and the future. By using this two-pronged approach, between education and proper R&D, the company is able to educate consumers within the market for film, and additionally, determine how to stay ahead of the competition. Proposed Solution In direct reference to KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s main problem (not foreseeing and adapting to market changes), we highly suggest that Kodak choose Alternative Solution 5: spend more time educating customers and communicating the value of KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s products, as well as investing more efforts in proper product development, aided by effective market analysis. By educating customers, Kodak is able to both lock-in the loyalty of current customers, sustain its competitive advantage, and find additional ways to attract more new customers. Moreover, investing its time Kodak 10 and money on proper product development and analysis will allow Kodak to grow within the developing market. As a result, Kodak would be able to develop a star product, while maintaining several cash cows. Implementation Product In regards to the product life cycle, KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s current product Gold Plus, exists in the maturity stage and their primary objective at this point is to defend and regain market share. To do this, Kodak needs to redevelop an existing line that will appeal to a broader audience of photographers. We are going to introduce Royal Gold to replace the current film, Ektar, in the high-end segment. At the same time we are going to propose to keep our premium product, Gold Plus, where itÃ¢â¬â¢s currently at in the middle segment and over the course of a year, as we want to phase it into the low-end of the middle segment, and make the price competitive with economy brands. This is partly because most consumers do not buy as much from the middle segment. Therefore, we want to enter a more profitable market segment. By phasing Gold Plus into the lower end, we can compete in both the high and low-end market. However, we cannot go about this by simply dropping the price of Gold Plus immediately. Mainly because doing so, in the eye on the customer, will cause confusion and potentially reduce brand equity. Instead, we will drop prices once or twice a month over the course of a year. This way, both products will be positioned better, in that we will be competitive in both areas. Royal Gold will be targeted to a broader customer base. It will be targeted to professionals and serious amateurs, as well as any photographer seeking film for Ã¢â¬Å"specialÃ¢â¬ occasions, as referenced in the case study. Royal Gold will produce a sharper image and overall a better quality photo, thus attracting customers who prefer to have options in what they do with their photos. Those wishing to potentially enlarge the photo will have a finished product that is so crisp they will have the peace of mind in knowing it will not jeopardize the integrity of the picture. Royal Gold will be available for purchase in a variety of forms. In order for Kodak to be profitable with this new product it will need to be sold in individual packages, as well as packs of three and/or six in order to give customers a variety in selection. Kodak 11 Place Royal Gold and Gold Plus will be sold in places where other Kodak products are currently being sold. There are several retail outlets that carry Kodak products so purchasing the new line will not be difficult or hard to find. The distribution will be allocated in amounts that will maximize profitability and will be attractive to customers who are selective in where they buy film. Our main distribution for Royal Gold and Gold Plus will be to discount and department stores, about 34%; the eased decline in pricing will not be as noticeable in such a store. Next will be to drug stores who typically do not offer as many discounts unless a customer is part of their rewards program, about 25% will be distributed to such. Camera shops will get about 15% of the distribution, as this will attract the customer base that Gold Plus targets, those photographers seeking a more professional picture. It is in the privately owned shops that single rolls of film will be purchased more frequently. The other 26% will be allocated to supermarkets and wholesale clubs. We predict profits will be maximized greatly coming from these establishments, especially in sales of the three/six value packs. It would be wise of Kodak to track the profits where the film is distributed within the first few months after repricing Gold Plus, gauge consumer demand and produce and distribute enough film in order to satisfy the market. Price While trying to implement an economy brand, Kodak failed when releasing Funtime film. The consumer was not educated in the differentiation between the superpremium Royal Gold, premium Gold Plus, and economy Funtime. Although the market was searching for a product from Kodak that would be introduced in the economy brand, Funtime was unsuccessful. By taking Funtime off the shelves, the economy portion of the Kodak market is unavailable. Gold Plus is KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s current lowest brand of film, but still offers higher quality over competing economy brands. Due to the stages in the product life cycle, Gold PlusÃ¢â¬â¢ price will naturally decrease. Gold Plus has already experienced its peak times of sales during the introduction and growth stages. Now that Gold Plus has been on the market for a while, it is now in the maturity stage of its life cycle, as sales have begun to stabilize. In order for a product to still succeed in the Kodak 12 maturity stage, the product must stand out among competitors. Implementing a gradual price decrease will slowly lower Gold Plus into the economy level tier without adding an entire new Kodak line. Eventually, a 15% price cut would give Gold Plus a price of $2. 96, $. 05 more than the Fujicolor Super G and Konice Super SR economy brands. Still allowing Kodak to have a distinguished brand image over competitors in the economy brand, this would place Gold Plus as a premium brand competing with competitors of the economy level. Sending coupons to customers is another way to help Kodak gain back market share in the decreasing market. Coupons create brand recognition and make customers feel like they, personally, are receiving a great deal. Because perception is reality, it is important for Kodak to position its brand as a product of high value. Instead of drastically slashing prices, KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s gradual price decrease, along with coupons, will help gain back the market. Making coupons available to customers helps Kodak keep their value. On the other hand, Royal Gold is still in the growth stage due to the replacement of KodakÃ¢â¬â¢s previous superpremium film, Ektar. When Kodak implements Royal Gold into the market, replacing Ektar, Royal GoldÃ¢â¬â¢s price is 20% lower than the previously existing Ektar, at $4. 19. In the superpremium market, Fujicolor Reala is selling at $4. 69, a $. 42 increase over Kodak Ektar. By gradually decreasing the price of Royal Gold, overtime, it will eventually take the place of Gold PlusÃ¢â¬â¢ previous position. In 1993, the premium brand, Gold Plus sold at $3. 49, competing at the same price as Agfacolor XRG. Ã¢â¬Å"Gold Plus price was standard of the industryÃ¢â¬ . Gold Plus no longer has the power of setting the price due to the lack of market share and position in the product life cycle. Instead of allowing Gold Plus to completely diminish from the market, diffusing it into the economy tier will still give Gold Plus a competitive edge. Promotion In order to regain market share, it is important for Kodak to advertise the benefits of Royal Gold and Gold Plus film. A simple picture can prove quality of film; alongside educating through commercials, Kodak will ensure the consumer knows exactly what to look for in film. Mailing out coupons is another great form of advertising. Promotion will help Kodak educate, along with create brand recognition. In turn, customers will purchase Kodak film and avoid post-purchase dissonance. By launching an advertising campaign and Kodak 13 emphasizing the long-term quality of Kodak, as well as educating the customer on distinctions between each product, consumers will be attracted to the film best suited for their needs. Kodak can gain a larger market share by informing the customer what they are gaining from purchasing Kodak film before even entering the store. This campaign, done through commercials, emphasizes the benefits of buying each Kodak product. As Royal Gold is new to the market, more advertising must be focused to educate consumers about the product. Devote 60% of the advertising budget to Royal Gold and 40% to Gold Plus, allowing Royal Gold more resources to takeoff as a new product. Pinpointing the idea that the average picture taker can take a picture like a professional, without being targeted to professionals. A commercial representing Royal Gold as well as Gold Plus is necessary to show the perk of each product. The innovation of Royal Gold coming from Ektar, which was originally targeted to professionals, adds confusion to the average photographer, assuming the consumer must be a professional to purchase the product. By making it clear to the market that Royal Gold is targeted to the consumer wishing to capture the Ã¢â¬Å"special momentsÃ¢â¬ , the average consumer will be more drawn to the product. Gold Plus advertisement will focus on the value of everyday quality film. Whenever you take a picture, Gold Plus is there for you, always dependable in any situation. In a Kodak commercial, Royal Gold is the film used to capture the special first moments of a baby being born. Gold Plus is the dependable film for irresistible times thereafter when the baby is constantly photographed. As a result of consumers being uneducated in the film market, the general hesitation of purchasing film will come from being unaware of the benefits each film provides. Educating consumers, promoting benefits of Kodak and showing the attributes important in the Gold Plus as well as the Royal Gold film will lead consumers to the correct product. With the correct promotional strategy, the education will be suited for the target market, resulting in a satisfied consumer.