Saturday, December 28, 2019

Guilt and Corruption in Great Expectations - 1598 Words

Guilt and Corruption in Great Expectations The Victorian era is often cited as England’s golden age; however, beneath the trappings of silk and gold lay a society of greed and corruption. The rich lived a lifestyle of luxury and indulgence by exploiting the labor of the poor. Charles Dickens saw the injustice of the class system in Victorian society and worked to highlight the immorality of the upper class through his literature. Because Dickens himself had experienced both poverty and wealth, he recognized the inequality prevalent within the established class system and sought to expose the truth to others through Pip’s journey towards becoming a gentleman. In his novel Great Expectations, Dickens uses symbolism and imagery to develop†¦show more content†¦Parkinson continues, adding that â€Å"what [Mr. Jaggers] knows...eats like dirt into his mind, corrupting the honorable traits he might once have had,† further emphasizing Dickens argument that being part of the â€Å"traditional† upper class, a status gained through birth and luck, eventually corrupted the traces of decency and humanity. Pip’s growing knowledge of card games symbolizes the loss of his innocence and his increasing similarity to the arrogant upper class that he has become a part of. Parkinson highlights the connection between card games and corruption by stating that â€Å"the characters associated with successful card playing are revealed to be desperately unhappy and morally corrupt,† suggesting that the upper class, which is skilled in playing card games, is dishonest and immoral. In addition, â€Å"at the beginning of the novel, Pip knows only one card game. His inability to play games...suggests straightforwardness and honesty† (Parkinson). By examining this statement, it is clear that Dickens intends to establish Pip’s initial innocence in order to show his increasing moral impurity as a result of his association with wealthy characters such as Estella and Miss Havisham. It is also important to note that it is Estella and Miss Havisham, figures of the upper class, who pierce through Pip’s innocence and succeed in corrupting his previously sound morals. Through his connection with theShow MoreRelated Great Expectations: Gods Law Vs. Human Law Essay1164 Words   |  5 Pages Great Expectations: Gods Law vs. Human Law In his book Great Expectations, the problematic nature of moral judgement and justice that stems from a conflict between Gods law and human law is one of several topical themes that Charles Dickens addresses. This paradox regularly surfaces in his treatment of plot and setting, and is more subtlety illustrated in his use of character. To facilitate the readers awareness of such a conflict, the narrator often uses language that has Christian connotationsRead MoreThe Tragedy of Being Born a Woman Essay611 Words   |  3 PagesIn the story The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, the role of the female characters Daisy, Jordan and Myrtle find themselves in conflict with society’s expectations of them. However, they each negotiate the conflict and resolve it. By examining Daisy, Jordan and Myrtle’s roles, one can contemplate how they went about resolving the issue. The beautiful and mesmerizing Daisy Buchanan is the poster child of sociability. She lives a particular lifestyle in the privileged, high class Louisville,Read MoreHamlet by William Shakespeare726 Words   |  3 Pagesindividual who witnesses the dead body of a King, effortlessly hacked at like a piece of meat (gesture towards floor). 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Overall, Pip undergoes great changes fromRead MoreKohlberg s Theory Of Moral Development1450 Words   |  6 Pagespunishment. This will be a life expectations of society and show them the benefits of obliging as far as the law is concerned. Insurance frauds and serial killers will be deterred by punishment such as incarceration. This will help from them committing crimes ( ).† Illustrate two to three ways in which you would address self-interest and pursuit of pleasure to prevent police corruption. First, I would have to look at the nature of corruption. â€Å" Which the causes haveRead MoreThe Human Condition and Ideologies in Hamlet by Willliam Shakespeare1522 Words   |  7 Pagesas justice, loyalty and morality. Although these deeply human ideas ensure the plays resonance, they are somewhat secondary to the depths of Hamlet’s human struggle. These thematic concerns reflect how flaws in the values of society descend into corruption. Through an exploration of the characterization, Shakespeare invites a re-evaluation of the values that shape human nature. The textual integrity of Hamlet makes it of distinctive and enduring value. Its construction and language represents a powerfullyRead MoreThe Hunchback Of Notre Dame1737 Words   |  7 Pagesmedia as well as daily life, people who are deemed beautiful by society s expectations have a distinct advantage over those who only have solid morals and a first-rate education. In the movie The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Esmeralda, Quasimodo’s love interest, chooses another man because Quasimodo is not as attractive as him. Over the course of the movie, it is evident that Esmeralda is the only person to ever show great kindness to Quasimodo, despite his unconventional appearance. As a result, heRead MorePsychological Doubling Frankenstein1611 Words   |  7 Pagescharacters hidden desires and wants is called the shadow self. He also believes that between the twins like characters there is always one evil twin. Freud says that the evil twin is most often followed by some kind disease or sickness as a symbol of corruption and plague for hell. In most literature the doppelganger is the evil twin because most hidden desires are against what society finds acceptable or normal. However, in the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, that is not the case. Shelley uses thatRead MoreExplore the Relationship between Character and Environment. Essays1112 Words    |  5 PagesVictorian novelist, to strive after as full a vision of the medium in which a character moves, as of the character itself. Explore the relationship between character and environment in any one or two fictional works of the period. Both Great Expectations and David Copperfield are characterised by the close relationship between the characters and their immediate environment. This is emblematic of all Dickens novels, reflecting Dickens own life, recreating his experiences and journeys, usingRead MoreThe Poor Labyrinth: The Theme of Social Injustice in Dickens Great Expectations by John H. Hagan Jr.1304 Words   |  5 Pages Victorian England was notorious for, along with top hats, its outdated â€Å"justice† system. Fraught with corruption, expired methods, and disorganization, the Victorian judiciary system was a severe flaw in the royal kingdom that was partially fed by the crime-fearing public and indifferent servants of the law. Growing up in an oppressive environment reminiscent of Victorian England’s own corrupt justice system, Pip’s journey from childhood to adulthood illustrates a gradual realization of the willful

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Movie Analysis When A Man Loves A Woman - 889 Words

Released in the summer of 1994, the movie â€Å"When a Man Loves a Women† produced by Touchstone Pictures’ producer Jon Avnet created a film that touches on a female alcoholic. This film included stars like Meg Ryan, Andy Garcia, and Lauren Tom. An airline pilot played by Garcia as Michael and his wife Alice portrayed by Ryan are forced to deal with her alcoholism. Within this family it includes that of her two children and the nanny (Lauren Tom). The film offers several hinting scenes to Alice’s addiction. Alcoholism is a disease of denial, the movie focuses on not only the alcoholic but those around her that deny and have even grown accustomed to her drinking. The opening scene has Alice drinking and the film continues from there to focus on the alcohol. The scenarios of the mother’s slide to the bottom include incidents like that of: egging the neighbor’s car who’s alarm keeps going off, falling out of the boat on their trip to Mexi co, and the night that she locks herself out of the house because she was throwing her â€Å"evidence† bottle away. These episodes reflect not only that the problem is getting worse, but that he is enabling/ accepting it. I found it unfortunate that the film does not include more incidents such as those that Alice reveals in her AA speech. She reveals that she got out of the shower, then went outside with a towel to get the paper, however it was still folded up in her hand. The film avoids any scene with regards to her driving drunk withShow MoreRelatedEssay on Finding Meaning in For Color Girls1232 Words   |  5 Pagessuicide when the rainbow was enuf†. Tyler Perry adapted and transformed it into a movie in 2010. For colored girls is centered on nine women as they encounter their fair share of neglect, abuse, pain and harassment both physically and emotionally. They slowly but surely recover from such abuse and discover joy in themselves. The movie begins with the characters as strangers but at the end, they become good friends. I watched this movie because it was directed by Tyler Perry. I thought the movie wasRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgeralds Personl Influences on The Great Gatsby1762 Words   |  7 Pages â€Å"Let us learn to show our friendship for a man when he is alive and not after he is dead.† (Fitzgerald, 1925). The Great Gatsby is a novel written by F. Scott Fitzgerald, published in 1925, and takes place in 1922. The novel greatly exemplifies the time period that it takes place in, known as â€Å"The Roaring Twenties† or â€Å"The Jazz Age†. One way of exemplification is prohibition and the Volstead Act. According to David J. 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The full film is in the perspective of Jeff in his apartment, giving the illusion that the watcher is experiencing this mystery with him. This male perspective on the plotline of the movie introduces the gender stereotypes that encapsulates the film. The themes of this film are apparent when discussing beautyRead MoreHenry Giroux Rhetorical Analysis Essay1351 Words   |  6 Pagesand that men care more about a woman’s image rather than what a woman has to say. Giroux fails to consider that the children exposed to Disney films would not comprehend the message in the same way he does. The images that Giroux discusses such as ; â€Å"Ursulas disclosure to Ariel that having her voice taken away is not so bad because men do not like women who talk is dramatized when the prince attempts to bestow the kiss of true love on Ariel even though she has never spoken to him. Within this rigidRead More Analysis of the Movie, Daughters of the Dust Essay543 Words   |  3 PagesAnalysis of the Movie, Daughters of the Dust Daughters of the Dust, was a movie about traditions, and the history of the women in a black family carrying these traditions. The movie starts in 1902, in an island where a family has lived for generations, since the slavery times. Part of this family, wants to leave the Island, but another part wants to preserve the traditions staying in the island. So the whole movie is about the struggle of the members of this family, in relation to leavingRead MoreGender Stereotypes in Think Like a Man934 Words   |  4 PagesGender Stereotypes in Think Like a Man Think Like a Man (2012) is an American romantic comedy directed by Tim Story. It is based on Steve Harvey’s book Act Like a Lady, Think Like a Man, which was a mega best-seller of 2009 that provides women with insights into the male’s mind and strategies for conquering a man’s heart. As suggested by its title, the movie encourages women to think like a man so that they can learn to control the man. Under the advice from Harvey’s book, four women determine

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Malaysian Studies Federal Constitutional Monarch

Question: Discuss about theMalaysian Studies for Federal Constitutional Monarch. Answer: Introduction Malaysia is Southeast Asian federal constitutional monarch and is made of thirteen states and three federal territories. The nation is unique because of the harmony of the multi-ethnic groups that live in the country. The occurrence of conflict is rare among the ethnic groups in Malaysia hence ensuring the country is a society that is a pluralist (Chee, Lu, Yeoh, 2014). It is a critical task for the Malaysian government to develop a country that is integrated, there are harmony and democracy and where national identity and values are shared. The articulated aim thus has been a great unease of the government since self-rule to date, and it is replicated in the requirement to advance a nation that is cohesive. National integration substantiates a means of national unity or national consensus. It pragmatically articulates the creation of systems in domestic politics that supersedes or encompasses all the subsystems regionally (Amran, 2011). National unity accentuates the process that u nites the various groups that have backgrounds that are different concerning social and culture factors into one physical entity that is recognizable. An example where national unity can be achieved is the effort of uniting into a federation the Sabah, the Sarawak and the Peninsular of Malaysia. This assignment discusses the studies about Malaysia. Three Aspects of Integration Positive integration articulates the adjustment of existing and the subsequent establishment of new policies and institutions that are endowed with powers that are centralized and cohesive. Positive integration attempts to regain some influence for the political in respect of the society and the directive of key issues at the level of the nation. Positive integration is considered to shape the national values because it tries to intervene with the unity of the nation and subsequently involves a broader adoption of the institution at the national level. It is imperative to appreciate that real integration is not as clear as negative integration and the vulnerability of policies that are inefficient due to the accord of creating a verdict is considered to be more critical. Negative integration describes the elimination of institutions that are discriminatory. Negative integration intervenes against the barriers in the nation to the unrestricted movement of merchandises, persons, and services (Chong, Chan, Ooi, Sim, 2011). The perspective greatly diminishes the assortment of national policy selections and represent a key forfeiture of political control over the economy that is considered capitalist. The loss of the power for a nation regulation is essential in circumventing alterations by the state such as financial sustenance for a national industry that is unprofitable or processes that are discriminatory against investment from foreigners and labor (Young, Young, 2014). The demand of negative integration articulates that the local regulations comply with the law. Balanced integration heightens the adoption of both the positive and negative integration. The phenomena encompass adjusting the existing and the subsequent establishment of new policies and institution and at the same time eliminating those institutions that are considered to be discriminatory. The balanced integration shapes the national values because it tries to intervene with the unity of the nation and on the other hand the national policy choices are balanced, and the loss of power for national regulation is balanced to avoid the distortion by the state. Analysis of Each Aspect of Integration by Various Agencies of Government The Malaysian government is very solemn in attaining the nation concord and integration. Many attitudes have been adopted to overwhelm the hindrances and encounters. They encompass the following The New Economic Policy embraces an approach from a commercial perspective by the Malaysian rgime. The policy was presented in 1970 after the unrest of May 13, 1969. The object for the disturbance was because of an economic cause in which there was a large gap in the economic environment between the Malays and Chinese races (Mokhtar, Maiyaki, Mohd, 2011). The NEP is articulated as an economic development and a platform for nation unity in the public that is multiracial. The introduction for NEP was, therefore, key in demolishing the disparities in economic which is compared with the Bumiputras and the non-Bumiputras, the countryside and urban people, individuals in the west and east coast and the people in the Peninsular and Sabah and Sarawak. The wealth distribution imbalances have been characteristic of the people mentioned. There was more wealth for the non-Bumiputras, the town people, the people on the west coast and the peninsula people compared to the poverty levels of the other people. The races before the introduction of NEP were acknowledged through their economic functions. An example is articulated with the Chinese race who known for being traders and oriented towards business which controlled their commercial undertakings; the Malays were considered to be a farmer because they subsisted in the rural areas while the Indians were deemed to be laborers at estates because they lived in such estates (Warner, 2014). The introduction of NEP was to accomplish aims that include The reduction and eradication of poverty by increasing the opportunities for jobs and income to all the Malaysian citizens without looking at their races. The policy was encapsulated by restructuring the community with the aim of reducing and erasing the identification of races through how they function concerning their economic activities. The social approach is encapsulated by National Culture Policy that was introduced in August of 1971 in the direction of national integration. The NCP emboldens individuals to stake ideas among themselves (Srensen, Van den, Fullam, Doyle, Pelikan, Slonska, Brand, 2012). The policy has been in place since liberation and is articulated by the ethos of the ethnic people of the state. Any elements that are collective and affirmative from another ethos that is apt and contribute to the achievement of concord may adopt the policy. An instance is the exercise of conjoint aid referred to as gotong-royong in Malay civilization has been embraced by the policy considering that the plan is deemed to be affirmative. The official language is the Malay semantic and a communication medium of the NCP. The adoption of the policy is anticipated that it creates a national character for the Malaysian multicultural people. Various educational reports have been executed since independence to bond and assimilate the people. The British colonialist lacked a clear policy of education. Education developed in four virtually segregated streams which were articulated by ethnicity (Harris, 2012). These streams comprised of English, Malay, Chinese and Tamil languages with each having its objectives, syllabus, instruction medium and the qualification of the teacher and standards of training. An example is the use of Chinese language where it was used for the Chinese community as a medium of tutoring and hence the learners were visible to China history. The history of the Malayan and likewise for Tamil was never taught as this was a divide and rule policy that had been adopted by the British who never wanted the people to unite. The following reports are critical for national unity under the education agency of the government; The Razak Report of 1956 was made up of a team formed by the British rule and lead by the Minister of Education at the period. The responsibility encompassed the preparation of the national education system (Mokhtar, Maiyaki, Mohd, 2011). The report articulated for one system of education; Malayan semantic was made to be the recognized national dialectal and a medium of tutoring in education and Malay dialect and English was made compulsory in all primary and secondary schools Rahman Talib Report of 1961 strengthened the implementation of Razak Report by making changes to the amendments. The Malayan language became the only language as a medium of instruction, and there were two types of schools. The Hussein Onn Report of 1971 aimed at restudying the National Education Policy and offer education to all children in schooling age. The Mahathir Report of 1985 was to ensure that the system of education that existed contented the nation goal of producing a society that was cohesive, orderly and skilled. The Ministry of National Unity and Social Development was created in 1990. One of the key purposes is to embolden the multiracial society harmony and also promote the national integration (Hutchison, Reinking, 2011). The ministry has many departments with the Department of Social Unity ensuring that the realization of the ministry is in the direction of integration. The objective that heightens the national inclusion of the section include The increase of awareness to the community on the national concord and integration through programs and activities that embolden and reinforce the values articulated. To substantively bring together and synchronize programs on the racial interface through Runuk Tetangga which encompass a structure which is grounded on the neighborliness spirit. The children are educated on the races that form a character and eccentric that aid the effort for national concord and assimilation. Since the birth of Malaysia, the government has been serious about ensuring that there is unity. The leaders from the three primary races have taken an ingenuity to form a treaty among the parties that participate in politics which embody the three races. The National Front, an alliance between three sides, was established in 1951 and is still present today (Miller, 2011). Through the treaty, all the contrary interpretations among the races are synchronized and determined by the agents of the party. The pact has been seen to up to a certain extent brought some success in the management of conflict between the communities in Malaysia. The main requirements of the constitution articulate that the Malay semantic is the regional language of Malaysia. The language is encapsulated to endorse unity among the citizens, and it is articulated by few proverbs that have been created. How the Three Aspects of Integration as Stated can Contribute to the Development of National Integration Values The three aspects of integration that are the positive, negative and balanced integration that has played a pivotal role in understanding the dynamics of the Malaysian national values in development and also instrumental in explaining the dynamics and can contribute to the development of national integration values (Pietsch, Clark, 2014). Despite diverse variations between the three aspects of integration, the introduction of common recognition as the lead policy has privileged the elimination of barriers to negative integration over the adoption of common standards which are the positive integration. As a study of the efforts taken thus far shows, negative integration has been prejudiced towards positive integration at the expense of both individual and companies rights. Unity is considered to be the process that involves coming together in all aspects of social, physical, political and economic (Lee, 2015). Basically, the term unity can be referred to as a process of outlining a n ationalized identity among the differentiated groups in diverse issues like cultures, beliefs, sociology, politics and locations in the political unit because every cultural group in Malaysia has its own language, cultures, and beliefs. Positive integration, negative integration, and the balanced integration can contribute to the development of national integration values through the following ways; Positive integration has encouraged diverse people to move from one area to another. The aspect of positive integration has led to the many Malaysian people moving from other parts to other parts. Setting diverse people in certain areas can encourage integration and closer mingling among races (Idris, Dollard, 2011). Positive integration has unified public servants among all the states in the country. State officers and their respective families can be requested to move and serve in terrorists that basically need their respective services. The officers can also be encouraged to join meetings, seminars, and programs for training in the country as this aspect will bring individuals near to one another (Hassan, Weiss, 2012). Positive integration has also developed better business opportunities in the country regions since this particular phenomenon basically refers to traders in non-developed regions so as to move to more developed regions so as to expand their particular economic act ivities. Positive integration is habitually recognized with optimistic values such as social defense and the improvement of marketplace failures, negative integration with social dumping, deregulation, and the securing of economic interests. In reality, economic and other exceptional interests might find it suitable to support positive integration measures and efforts. Positive integration being one of the aspects of integration can contribute to the development of national integration values through standardization of the country education system. Even though the education system in Malaysia has reached to maturity, there are still some matters that basically need some attention because it is basically believed that the education system is considered to be an important component in determining the direction of ethnic reactions in Malaysia. National types of schools need to be reexamined so as to determine the aspect benefits all ethnicities particularly in the sense of unity. Negative integration has facilitated Malaysia to remove diverse barriers that may hinder the overall production of its firms. Removal of tariffs such as higher taxes towards diverse companies in the state will encourage the aspect of production because the firms will be able to make a significant amount of profits (Hashim, Rahman, 2011). This type of integration will be more comprehensive to economic integration since the country needs to ensure that economic development is carried out comprehensively and that no difference occurs in the economic development. Negative integration may also lead to national development because the removal of diverse quotas on the companys production will enhance the state values in terms of development. The aspect has also reduced poverty levels basically by providing more employment opportunities to all the state races, communities and also restructured communities so as to eradicate the aspect of racial stereotyping based on the economic functions. Negative integration being one of the aspects of integration can contribute to the development of national integration values through the development of diverse strategies for eradicating policies. The main focus of the aspect of integration was to focus in both rural and urban areas (Koh, 2015). Therefore the negative integration has enhanced the government implementation of various public services and facilities such as educations, water health and supply of electricity. Negative integration can contribute to the development of national integration values through reducing the imbalances in the land utilization structures so that the participations of diverse races in main sectors would basically reflect on the labor force in accordance with racial composition. Under the balanced integration, being another aspect of national integration can contribute to the development of national integration values by ensuring balanced development for the main economic sector so as improve complementary capacities between diverse states to optimize growth. This aspect will create an optimum balance among the targets of economic development with fair value distribution in the national development principles that basically improves the country development. Balanced integration will also enhance, reduce and eventually eradicate social and economic imbalances through encouraging fair sharing and mutual benefits that were obtained from more growth experienced in Malaysia (De Wilde, Zrn, 2012). The aspect of progressive society development in which the Malaysian people can enjoy a high level of well-being possesses spiritual values and social values as well as feeling appreciation and the love of the country because balanced integration is a clear aspect that brings about diverse solutions so as to enhance the overall production. Suggestion of Policies or Activities that could be Proposed in Contributing to National Integration Developing human resources, and creating a disciplined and productive workforce as well as improved necessary skills to face challenges of industrial development via a culture of excellence without jeopardizing the main aim of restructuring diverse communities. Basically, human resources form the bigger factor in every country because they often provide support to the firms productions and a better proposal that contributes to the national integration. Another suggestion is that the country ensures that in pursuit of economic development is the eradication of poverty (Warner, 2014). These suggestions assist in providing a suitable attention in that if usually provided to the protection of the environment and the ecology in the long term. In order to ensure that the state development is continuously maintained, the national development principles have taken into deliberation the overall progress attained as well as its weaknesses and strengths. In implementing diverse strategies on poverty eradication, the national integration policy will take into deliberation diverse changes to the role of the public sector through the opening of land and subsidy awards to small farmers so as to create job opportunities and assist advance their incomes (Tang, Chua, 2012). Promoting the use of national language is another policy that will promote unity among the people of Malaysia. The main goal of this particular policy is to ensure that the proposed development system satisfy the state goal of production of a united, trained and disciplined society. Enhancing the aspect of national language will result in broader capabilities of the country development Another suggestion of policies that could be proposed in contributing to national integration is the use of national culture policy and participation of all races in developing Malaysia. National culture policy is considered to be a social means towards the aspect of national integration because through the national culture policy diverse people are encouraged to share values among then (Felker, Jomo, Rasiah, 2013). The national development policy is usually based on the aspect of the ethnicity of the Malaysian indigenous people because it is basically considered that any positive and universal elements from other cultures that is appropriate and contributes towards unity. In the basic implementation of national culture policy, two-pronged strategies will continue to encourage the garnering of national resources and the utilizing the intelligence of multiracial societies so as to build a durable economy and increase the states capability to withstand the globe economic uncertainties and instabilities. Restructuring of societies is another policy because abolishment of racial stereotypes in accordance with economic functions and also a restructuring of ownership will continue to be vital programs in the overall implementation of diverse strategies so as to improve and to contribute to the national integration in both the modern centers and traditional sectors. This particular activity or policy will equip Malaysia with suitable skills to not only manage and operate successful trading but also to maintain the entire wealth in addition. Conclusion In conclusions, from the entire discussion, it is generally concluded that Malaysia is considered to be a multi-cultural or multi-ethnic and pluralist society because from the Independence to present, this state has experienced diverse obstacles, problems, and challenges, in the aspect of national integration (Favell, 2016). Many states have taken several measures to make sure unity and stability among diverse ethnic group and races. The Malaysian state government has often put diverse measures which are very vital for unity or national integration. The national integration will make sure that the states success and the wealth will enhance the aspect of national integration. References Amran, N. A. (2011). Corporate governance mechanisms and company performance: Evidencefrom Malaysian companies. International Review of Business Research Papers, 7(6), 101-114. Chee, H. L., Lu, M. C., Yeoh, B. S. (2014). Ethnicity, citizenship and reproduction: Taiwanese wives making citizenship claims in Malaysia. Citizenship Studies, 18(8), 823-838. Chong, A. Y., Chan, F. T., Ooi, K. B., Sim, J. J. (2011). Can Malaysian firms improveorganizational/innovation performance via SCM?. Industrial Management Data Systems, 111(3), 410-431. De Wilde, P., Zrn, M. (2012). Can the politicization of European integration be reversed?. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 50(s1), 137-153. Favell, A. (2016). Philosophies of integration: immigration and the idea of citizenship in Franceand Britain. Springer. Felker, G., Jomo, K. S., Rasiah, R. (Eds.). (2013). Industrial technology development inMalaysia: industry and firm studies. Routledge. Hassan, S., Weiss, M. (Eds.). (2012). Social Movement Malaysia. Routledge.Harris, A. L. (2012). Diaspora and imagined nationality: USA-African dialogue and Cyberframing Nigerian nationhood. Journal of Pan African Studies, 5(3), 135-137. Hashim, U., Rahman, R. (2011). Audit report lag and the effectiveness of audit committee among Malaysian listed companies. International Bulletin of Business Administration, 10(1), 50-56. Hawani Wan Abd Rahman, N., Mohamed Zain, M., Hanim Yaakop Yahaya Al-Haj, N. (2011). CSR disclosures and its determinants: evidence from Malaysian government link companies. Social Responsibility Journal, 7(2), 181-201. Hill, H., Yean, T. S., Zin, R. H. M. (Eds.). (2013). Malaysia's development challenges:Graduating from the middle (Vol. 11). Routledge. Hussain, A., Ani, F. N., Darus, A. N., Ahmed, Z. (2012). Thermogravimetric andthermochemical studies of Malaysian oil palm shell waste. Jurnal teknologi, 45(1), 43-53. Hutchison, A., Reinking, D. (2011). Teachers perceptions of integrating information andcommunication technologies into literacy instruction: A national survey in the United States. Reading Research Quarterly, 46(4), 312-333. Idris, M. A., Dollard, M. F. (2011). Psychosocial safety climate, work conditions, andemotions in the workplace: A Malaysian population-based work stress study. International Journal of Stress Management, 18(4), 324. Koh, S. Y. (2015). How and why race matters: Malaysian-Chinese transnational migrantsinterpreting and practising Bumiputera-differentiated citizenship. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 41(3), 531-550. Lee, M. (2015). Expanding the State Role in Malaysia. International higher education, (20). Miller, M. A. (2011). Why scholars of minority rights in Asia should recognize the limits ofWestern models. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34(5), 799-813. Mokhtar, S., Maiyaki, A., Mohd Noor, N. (2011). The relationship between service qualityand satisfaction on customer loyalty in Malaysian mobile communication industry. School of Doctoral Studies (European Union) Journal, 2(3), 32-38. MQA, M. Malaysian Studies. Pietsch, J., Clark, M. (2014). Citizenship rights in Malaysia: the experience of social andinstitutional discrimination among ethnic minorities. Citizenship Studies, 18(3-4), 303-314. Siraj, S., Zakaria, A. R., Alias, N., Dewitt, D., Kannan, P., Ganapathy, J. (2012). FutureProjection on Patriotism among School Students Using Delphi Technique. Creative Education, 3(06), 1053. Srensen, K., Van den Broucke, S., Fullam, J., Doyle, G., Pelikan, J., Slonska, Z., Brand, H. (2012). Health literacy and public health: a systematic review and integration of definitions and models. BMC public health, 12(1), 1. Tang, C. F., Chua, S. Y. (2012). The savings-growth nexus for the Malaysian economy: aview through rolling sub-samples. Applied Economics, 44(32), 4173-4185. Warner, M. (2014). Culture and management in Asia. Routledge. Young, C. S., Young, J. S. (2014). Integrating spirituality and religion into counseling: Aguide to competent practice. John Wiley Sons.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Theory of planned behaviour

Definition The theory of planned behaviour states that individuals’ behaviours are determined by their intentions which in turn are influenced by attitudes, subjective norms and perception of control over behaviour (Contento, 2010). Intention refers to the extent to which someone is ready to engage in certain behaviour. It refers to the likelihood that someone will engage in certain behaviour.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Theory of planned behaviour specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the theory of planned behaviour is based on the concept that people are likely to do something if they plan to do it than if they do not. This means that intention is a key determinant on whether a certain action will be carried out. Therefore, people are certainly not likely to engage in a certain behaviour if they do not intend to. However, intention is influenced by attitudes, social norms and perceived behaviou r control (Edberg, 2009). Attitudes Attitudes are developed from a series of beliefs and they determine the value placed on the outcome of a given behaviour (Shaw, Gorely Corban, 2005). A person’s behaviour will be favourable if he or she perceives the outcome of certain behaviour to be positive, desirable, beneficial or advantageous. Conversely, unfavourable attitude refers to a case whereby, an individual perceives the outcome to be unpleasant. Hence, he or she is less likely to engage in that behaviour. For example, if a person believes that taking a lot of water will make him healthier then he is more likely to drink a lot of water (Ajzen, 2005). However, if the same person believes that taking a lot of water will make him lose his or her body shape, which he or she values, then he is less likely to take more water (Armitage Christian, 2004). Subjective Norms Apart from attitude intention is also influenced by subjective norms. Subjective norm refers to a social pressur e to engage or not to engage in a certain behaviour and is determined by normative beliefs (Wilson Kolander, 2010). Therefore, subjective norms refer to those behaviours that we perceive that the important people in our lives expect from us. The important people are those that we esteem highly who are our family members, religious leaders, healthcare providers, or friends and peers. Therefore, the subjective norms are as a result of our perceptions of the behaviours these people expect from us, and our desire to comply with the perceived expectations (Arnold, 2010).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, a first-time mother is likely to feed her child only on breast milk for a longer period if her mother and the doctors emphasize it to her. However, she is likely to breastfeed her child for a short period if these people are not concerned. (Hayden, 2009). Perceived b ehaviour control The intention to do something is determined by the extent to which he or she can control that behaviour. The theory of planned behaviour is based on volitional control of behaviour whereby a person is able to decide at will to engage or not to engage in certain behaviour. For instance, a person decides whether to take lunch or not at will (Fishbein, Ajzen Hornik 2007). However, there are times when an individual cannot control the behaviour although he or she has a high intention to engage in that behaviour. Therefore, a person is less likely to engage in a behaviour if he or she has less control over the behaviour. Conversely, the same person has a high likelihood in a certain behaviour if he or she perceives or actually has a high control over the behaviour (Glanz, Rimer Viswanath, 2008). List of references Ajzen I. (2005). Attitudes, personality and behaviour. Berkshire: McGraw-Hill International. Armitage, C. J. and Christian A. (2004). Planned behaviour: the relationship between human thought and action. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. Arnold V. (2010). Advances in Accounting in Behavioural Research. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Contento, I. R. (2010). Nutrition Education: Linking Research, Theory, and Practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones Bartlett Learning.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Theory of planned behaviour specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Edberg, M. C. (2009). Essential readings in health behaviour: theory and practice. London: Jones Bartlett Learning. Fishbein M., Ajzen I. and Hornik R. (2007). Prediction and change of health behaviour: applying the reasoned action approach. Mahwah, NJ: Routledge. Glanz K., Rimer, B. K. and Viswanath K. (2008). Health Behaviour and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. John Wiley and Sons. Hayden J. (2009). Introduction to health behaviour theory. Sudbury, MA: Jones Bartlett Learning. Shaw D., Gorel y T. and Corban R. (2005). Instant notes in sport and exercise psychology. New York, NY: Garland Science. Wilson R. and Kolander, C. A. (2010). Drug Abuse Prevention: A School and Community Partnership. Sudbury, MA: Jones Bartlett Learning. This essay on Theory of planned behaviour was written and submitted by user Giselle Daniels to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

SAT Test Dates 2018-2019

SAT Test Dates 2018-2019 SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Here at PrepScholar, we use the best data to inform you about what the testing schedule, registration deadlines, and score release dates will look like in the future.When choosing your test date, you should consider a number of factors - knowing exactly when the test will happen is vital for your planning.(If you're looking for something more recent, here's the information for previous years and for this school year.) In this article, I’ll give you the 2018-2019 SAT test datesand go over somefactors to think about when picking your test date. SAT Test Dates for the 2018-2019 School Year The listed test dates have been released by the College Board, but they’re still subject to change. The registration and score release dates are our estimations from general patterns from previous years. Test Date Normal Registration Late Registration Score Release Aug 25, 2018 Jul 27, 2018 Aug 10, 2018 Sept 13, 2018 Oct 6, 2018 Sep 7, 2018 Sep 21, 2018 Oct 25, 2018 Nov 3, 2018 Oct 5, 2018 Oct 19, 2018 Nov 22, 2018 Dec 1, 2018 Nov 2, 2018 Nov 16, 2018 Dec 20, 2018 Mar 9, 2019 Feb 8, 2019 Feb 22, 2019 Mar 28, 2019 May 4, 2019 Apr 5, 2019 Apr 19, 2019 May 23, 2019 Jun 1, 2019 May 3, 2019 May 17, 2019 June 20, 2019 How Accurate Is the Table Above? The test dates are the anticipated dates provided by the College Board, and the registration and score release dates are our estimations. Even though all the dates are likely to be correct, the test dates dates may be somewhat more reliable because they are provided by the College Board. However, the test dates won’t be confirmed until the summer of 2018. If any of the dates change, they’ll probably be a week earlier or later than the anticipated date. You can use these dates to help determine when you'll take the SAT. If you know your available options, you can select the date that works best with your schedule and take into account the time you need to prepare for the test. How to Choose Your Test Date Here are some important factors to consider when selecting your SAT test date: Make Sure You Know Your Deadlines! Take your SAT early enough that your score can arrive before any deadlines. If you apply regular decision, the December test in your senior year will be the last test you can take for most colleges. If you apply early, the last test you can take may be in October or November of your senior year. Additonally, scholarships have deadlines. If you want to apply for any scholarships that consider your SAT score, you’ll need to have your test score before the scholarship deadlines. I recommend allowing two months to receive your scores. How Many Times Do You Want to Take the SAT? Most students improve when they retake the SAT, soyou want to give yourself an opportunity to take the test multiple times. We recommend first taking the SAT in the fall of your junior year. Then you can retake it in the spring of your junior year and the fall of your senior year if necessary. How Long Do You Plan to Study? When selecting your test date, you want to make sure to give yourself enough time to prepare. Get an estimate of how long you’ll need to study and make sure you’ll be able to fully prepare before you take the test. If you take both the November and December tests without doing any studying in between, your score probably won’t improve much. Do You Have Conflicts With Any Test Dates? Check to see if you have any potential conflicts on or around any of the SAT test dates. Maybe the December date is on the same day as your speech and debate competition. Perhaps you want to avoid the June test date because you’ll be focusing on preparing for finals. It may be difficult to find a time when you can fully devote yourself to the SAT, but you should try to pick the best test dates for you. What's Next? Not sure what your score goal should be? Find out what SAT score you need for college. Also, learn who uses SAT scoresso you can determine if you really need to take the test. (Unfortunately, you probably do.) Finally, read this article on how much the SAT costsso you can plan financially as well. Want to learn more about the SAT but tired of reading blog articles? Then you'll love our free, SAT prep livestreams. Designed and led by PrepScholar SAT experts, these live video events are a great resource for students and parents looking to learn more about the SAT and SAT prep. Click on the button below to register for one of our livestreams today!

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Manager's Perspective Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Manager's Perspective Paper - Essay Example In order to get rid of such terrorist activities we need to develop an efficient aviation security program. As we are working in a world that is full of threats and dangers we need proper security programs to reduce the destructive activities that may take place within an airport or aircraft. An aviation security program helps us in setting up the security standards through which we can integrate different factors via which we can improve and enhance the security level of the aircraft and the airport, it also enables us to communicate and collaborate with all the employees in an efficient and fast manner. Aviation security programs also devise strategies through which we can handle our employees and assets in an effective manner. Aviation security became a major part of airports after the accident of 9/11. After the terrorist activities of September 11, 2001, the aviation security rose to a political level and certain mandatory requirements were declared by EurActive which were to be followed internationally.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Carrefour China - French Hypermarket Retail Chain Essay

Carrefour China - French Hypermarket Retail Chain - Essay Example With sales reaching 78 billion dollars annually, Carrefour stands as the second largest retailer after Walmart, in the world market. (Lin and Liang, 2002). Carrefour has established its presence in Asian countries like Malaysia, Taiwan, China, South Korea and Singapore. Though its growth in the Chinese market has been restricted by the governmental regulations like the mandatory requirement of a local joint-venture partner, Carrefour has increased its market share and successfully followed a policy of regional penetration in China. Carrefour has slowly and steadily made a foray in the retail industry in China, largely by taking up strategic local partners. With an agreement with the Guangzhou General Merchandise Group of south Chinas Guangdong province, the French company has laid the foundation of a lucrative joint venture in 2002. It also has joint venture undertakings in Kunming, the capital of southwest Chinas Yunnan province, and in Harbin, the capital of northernmost Heilongjiang province. 2 (Xinhua News Agency, 2002). Carrefour operates over 71 supermarkets across China and has been said to have purchased a total of 1.5 billion U.S. dollars worth of commodities from China in the year 2001. 3 (Xinhua News Agency, 2002). The latest Carrefour store became operational in January 2006, in Shanghai. The main competitors of Carrefour are Wal-Mart China, with 42 stores in the country, and Germany-based Metro Group, with 29 stores. 4. (China Frenchiser, 2006). Carrefour has an array of over 600 products sold through its retail stores and hypermarkets spread across diverse Chinese regions. Its products include grocery, detergent and personal care goods, fish farm and poultry, dairy and milk, snacks, bakery, snacks, frozen foods and beverages, and non-food items like kitchen-grade utensils. In addition to the above, Carrefour also stocks electrical goods, clothes, toiletries, luggage accessories and cleaning products. 5(Carrefour, 2006). The Carrefour stores are based on the concept of self-service, that provides the customer with the freedom to browse the products at their pace and thus exposing them to attractive display and packaging.     

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Muscles Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Muscles - Research Paper Example When the muscle needs to relax, an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase breaks down the existing acetylcholine that is in the synapse which terminates contraction. The sarcoplasmic reticulum ceases production of calcium II ions and immediately begins reuptake of the pre-existing ions. The muscle is then returned to its original shape via movement of muscle fibers. (2)Both systems are vital to our structure and our movement. The skeletal system is the support frame for our entire body. In some cases it encases vital organs (ie skull is to brain as rib cage is to intestines). However, the musculature in our body allows for vital functions to be carried out such as heart rate for blood pressure, movement of food for digestion as well as serving an important motor function as well. Muscles are attached to almost every part of the skeletal system. Without the skeletal system, our bodies would collapse under the weight of the muscles and without the musculature, we would not be able to carry out vital functions in our bodies as well as have locomotion. (3)The extensor carpi radialis was what allowed Ann to reach for the box on top of the refrigerator. This happens through muscle passively lengthening.

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Effect of Medication on Plants

The Effect of Medication on Plants Dante Rodriguez Abstract The  Effect  of  Medication  on  Plants The purpose of this project was to find out how someone could help a plant grow by using medication instead of fertilizer. I decided to do this topic and did a lot of research. I decided to use the Kentucky Wonder Pole Plant or Phaseolusvulgaris.The Kentucky Wonder plant is a pole bean which grows upward. I also decided to test it on 4 plants. One plant with water, one with aspirin, one with an antacid, and finally one with an anti-histamine. My hypothesis was that aspirin plant would grow the tallest because of the salicylic acid. The anti-histamine plant would grow normally, because plants dont have histamine. The antacid will grow shorter because it would damage the perfect balance of water. To do this experiment I needed pots, and the three medications which were the manipulated variables. I decide to use 1OOmgs of each medication as the constant variables. I dug a hole, and put the plants in the soil. I watered them once a day, with 15 sprays from my spray bottle. Every day I would measure the plants with a em ruler. I measured in the afternoon so that the plants would get the most growth out of each day. I would mark down my results to see how the height of the plants grew which was the responding variable. I did this for a total of 14 days, or two weeks. After two weeks, I got my results and they will shock you! My results were very intriguing. They showed a strange trend in the growth of my plants. The plant with normal water sprouted first. It continued to be the tallest plant until about day 12. At day 13 the anti-histamine plant surpassed the height of the regular water plant with a final height of 36.5 em. Before that the anti-histamine water was close but did not surpass the height of the regular water that had a total height of 33 em. Then came the aspirin water plant at 29 em. Finally the shortest plant was the antacid at 26 em. The results to my project was surprising. It proved, and disproved my hypothesis. It proved my hypothesis because the antacid grew the smallest. It did this because the Ph of the antacid plant was 6 which is not neutral. Unexpectedly, the aspirin plant didnt grow very well. I believe that this happened due to the fact that aspirin has a trace amount of salicylic acid. Therefore to have an effect you would need about 487mg or about one and a half, high dose aspirin. However what stumped me was why the anti ­ histamine plant grew the largest. I couldnt find any links between anti-histamine, and  the plants. Mainly because plants dont have histamine. If I had to do this project again,  I would attempt different dosages of the medication. Introduction Plants are everywhere. Chances are you even have a plant in your house. They grow everywhere, from the arid desert to the frigid reaches of the North Pole. Now they are even growing in the zero-gravity environment of the international space center. They have even been around longer than us! However it wasnt until 1771 when a British man named Joseph Priestley, discovered that plants gave off oxygen. This was an amazing _ scientific achievement. Now plants served an even better purpose than food. Due to these factors plants are critical to the survival of the human race. One issue is that they take a long time to mature. What if there was a common household medication that could help these creatures grow? After that moment I decided that I would use this for a science fair topic. I decided I would use plants, and 3 different types of medications. Research After choosing this topic I had to make a difficult decision. That decision was what type of plant I would use. To choose which plant I needed to factor in how much sun it needed, when is it in season, and how soon until it would sprout. After that I decided the best plant to use was the bean plant. Then I had another decision, what type? The choice was easy between the bush, and the pole bean. This was because the pole bean was easier to measure then the bush bean. Pole  Bean  plant  Bush  Bean  plant Then I needed to choose which medication to put in the plants. The first medicine I chose was aspirin. Aspirin has many components, one of which is salicylic acid. Salicylic acid is a chemical in plants that involves the growth of plants, and their development. With that information, I decided that would be one my first medications. The next one I chose was an antacid. I chose this because if a plant gets water to acidic it could cause deficiencies. Therefore I tried to see what would happen if I used an antacid. The final medicine I chose was an anti-histamine. Hypothesis After all the research my hypothesis is that the plant with the Aspirin will grow the best, due to the salicylic acid. The antacid plant wont grow as well due to the fact that the Ph of plants water will become alkaline instead of neutral. Also that the anti- histamine plant will grow normally because plants dont have histamine. Materials 4- 6 plant pots 1- Bag of gardening soil 1- Bag of Kentucky Wonder Pole Beans 4- 32. oz. spray bottles 100 mg- aspirin, antacid, anti-histamine Filtered water A em ruler for measuring plants A laptop or notebook (for writing down heights) A sunny area (To place plants) Variables Manipulated Variable: The medicine in the water of the plants Responding Variable: The height of the plant, the healthiness of the plants, and the greenness of the plant Constant Variables: Pot size, water spay amount, dirt type, seed type, location of plant, and the amount of milligrams. Procedure 1. Fill spray bottles with 19 oz. of filtered water 2. Place 100 mgs of medication into separate bottles 3. Let medication dissolve for about 24 hours 4. Fill all 4 pots with dirt 5. Dig hole about 1 deep into the dirt in each of the pots 6. Place a seed in the hole 7. Cover up the plants with a thin layer of dirt 8. Water the plants with 15 sprays daily 9. Measure each of the plants daily, with centimeter ruler 10. Keep track of their heights in a notebook, or a laptop Results The results of my experiment were very interesting, and surprising. They approved, and disproved my hypothesis. Here were my results: .:o 3 Aboveisa chartwiththeheightsofallmyplants He ight of Bean Plants in CmBean Plant Growth Day 13 Day14 33 34 27.5 29 24 24 35 36.5 0 25 20ANl 1> 10 c; 0 Day 1 Cav 2 ::>a> 3 D 1 4 ::: J> c Ddy Day ID y 0 v 9Day Day >ay.JV D y 1011121114 Reg  ·, lt r -Regâ‚ ¬Ã‚ ¢ r . rer-AsroA tl d1c;JS3S LineGraphofPlantHeightBarGraphofPlantHeight My results are displayed above. They show a strange trend in the growth of my plants. The plant with normal water sprouted first. It continued to be the tallest plant until 1 about day 12. At day 128J the anti-histamine plant surpassed the height of the regular water with a final height of 36.5 em. Before that the anti-histamine water was close but did not surpass the height of the regular water that had a total height of 33 em. The third tallest plant was the aspirin water plant at 29 em. Finally the shortest plant was the antacid 26 em. Plants  After  being  potted                                                                           Plants  at  end  of  experiment Conclusion The results to my project was surprising. It proved and disproved my hypothesis. It proved my hypothesis because the antacid grew the smallest It did this because the Ph of the antacid plant was 6 which is not neutral. Neutral is what the plants need which is at number 7 on the Ph scale. Just to make sure there was nothing wrong with my water, I tested the Ph of my tap water, and came out at 7. Unexpectedly, the aspirin plant didnt grow very well. I believe that this happened due to the fact that aspirin has a trace amount of salicylic acid. Therefore to have an effect you would need about 487mg or about one and a half, high dose aspirin. However what stumped me was why the  anti-histamine plant grew the largest. I couldnt find any links between anti-histamine, and the plants. Mainly because plants dont have histamine. If I had to do this project again, I would attempt different dosages of the medications.         

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Molieres Tartuffe - The Character of Tartuffe :: Tartuffe Essays

The Character of Tartuffe      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Moliere's neoclassic comedy, Tartuffe, is a prime example of his expertise in the comedic technique. The plot is one that keeps the reader or viewer interested and aware. It begins with Madame Pernell visiting her son's house and reprimanding all of them but their boarder, Tartuffe. She believes Tartuffe is a man of astounding character. The members of the house, however, disagree and say that Tartuffe is deceitful and a fraud. After Madam Pernell leaves, Dorine and Cleante, the maid and the brother-in-law of the main character, Orgon, discuss Tartuffe and both agree that he has captivated Orgon. Damis, Orgon's son, wonders whether his father will allow Mariane, Orgon's daughter, to marry Valere, who she is in love with, because Damis is in love with Valere's sister.    Orgon comes and tells Mariane that he wants her to marry Tartuffe instead of Valere because he wants to ally Tartuffe to his house. She is so shocked that she does not say anything. Cleante tries to tell Orgon about Tartuffe's misleading personality, but Orgon does not want to hear it. Valere finds out about this proposed marriage, and Dorine promises to help Mariane and Cleante expose Tartuffe for the hypocrite he is. Meanwhile, Damis has a plan to hide in a closet to try to expose Tartuffe's hypocrisy. He hears Tartuffe profess love to Elmire, Orgon's wife, and suggests that they become lovers. Damis comes from the closet and threatens to tell Orgon what he has said. Damis then tells Orgon, and Orgon is so blind to the truth, that he believes his own son is evil and disinherits him. Later, when Orgon and Tartuffe are alone, Orgon tells Tartuffe of his plans to make him his sole inheritor and his son-in-law. After this, Cleante tries to talk to Orgon about Tartuffe and he confronts Tartuffe in front of Orgon. Tartuffe just dodges the questions, though, and leaves as soon as possible. Elmire then convinces Orgon to hide and find out for himself about Tartuffe, so he does so. Tartuffe comes to see Elmire and once again professes his love. Orgon hears it all, comes from the closet, and bans Tartuffe from his house. Orgon, however, has already signed over his house to Tartuffe and Tartuffe threatens him with this. Orgon is afraid because he has given Tartuffe some secret papers that could ruin his position in the court.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Gleaning Rich Insights from Works of Literature Tackling Fatherhood Essay

Reading works of literature by different authors on a common topic broadens our understanding about human nature, cultures and history. Poetry that expresses angsts and pangs, or exalt the beauty or of things around us, in forceful language or elevated style like the lyric poem, can be an enriching experience. Watching or reading a play can likewise be an inspirational experience. Indeed, there is a variety of meanings, sentiments, and even moral lessons that unravel to readers exploring poetry and play focused on a central unifying theme. This paper presents six types of fatherhood types as gleaned from five poems and one play: (a) the grieving father, (b) the despised father, (c) the hardworking but detached father, (d) the itinerant far-off dad, (e) the involved father, and (e) the deadbeat dad. The selected works of literature all say something about the human experience, motivation, and condition, with special focus on the overwhelming father-child bond. While all of them are created in thought-provoking manner and are replete with figurative language, taking the reader on a journey and letting various insights linger in the memory, they differ in their approaches. In effect, the different perspectives on fatherhood are crystallized into an integrated idea with a richer context. â€Å"On My First Son† by Ben Jonson has an opening line that reflects a father’s deep melancholy and anguish as he mourns what most people may consider to be their greatest loss: the death of one’s own child. When Jonson writes, â€Å"Farewell, thou child of my right hand, and joy† (Ciuraru 191), there is heartfelt grief as he shares a painful loss. The use of the word thou, oftentimes used in formal religious context as prayers, adds impact because it conjures an image of a father paying his last respects to his young son. The last few lines which echo the poet’s relief that his son has escaped the trials and tribulations of this world (Ciuraru 191) point to how the author attempts to soothe his intense pain and reflects his acceptance of his son’s fate as well. On the other hand, â€Å"Daddy† by Sylvia Plath speaks from a daughter’s point of view for a father who has passed away. It has a somber and dark mood and the feelings of intense hatred and betrayal are shown in the very selection of words and imagery. â€Å"Perhaps no poem is as explicit and powerful as Sylvia Plath’s `Daddy,’ which describes an idealized yet oppressive father, one whom the speaker rejects with a resounding, forceful brutality† (Ciuraru 14). Parental relations, as most psychoanalysts may confirm, carries over into one’s adult relationships, and this was clearly the case with Sylvia Plath. During her childhood, she lost her father, Otto Plath, to complications from surgery following a leg amputation (Martin, para. 1) and this, along with her memories of feeling smothered and betrayed, appeared to have left an imprint on her. Plath uses metaphors, notably a shoe to describe her father, and herself as the foot that is in some way trapped in the shoe, to express just how suffocated and oppressed she felt. As many who are familiar with Sylvia Plath’s life would know, the talented writer had a tumultuous relationship with her poet-husband Ted Hughes, and â€Å"personal jealousies, differences in American and British views of gender roles, and a return of Sylvia’s depression complicated the Plath-Hughes marriage† (Martin, para. 8) and she makes references to how her very life was sucked out of her the way a vampire drinks the blood of its captive, in her poem. In the 15th stanza, she states: If I’ve killed one man, I’ve killed two— The vampire who said he was you And drank my blood for a year, (Barnet 703) There are many other figures of speech, including similes, rhyming and tone, that helpfully lend emphasis and effectively transport readers to a time when people felt quite shackled by parental authority and were powerless to do something about it. Plath’s poem ends with a sense of closure, nonetheless, reflecting her resolve to take matters into her own hands. As for â€Å"Those Winter Sundays† by Robert Hayden, the specific use of figurative language effectively highlights the hardworking but detached type of father that many of us may be familiar with. Upon reading the poem in its entirety, one senses a certain remoteness shown by the father, or as perceived by the son from his father. The first line in the second stanza, which says: â€Å"I’d wake and hear the cold splintering, breaking† creates a mental picture in the reader’s mind, through poetic devices like rhyme and assonance or the use of long vowel sounds to slightly slow down the poem for emphasis. The reader also senses that cold refers not just to the weather but to the feeling that envelops the son as he rouses himself from slumber and faces his father. Hayden also places specific words at the beginning of his lines to give it focus and importance. The very last line in the poem which describes love as being austere is an indirect acknowledgment that love dwells even in a home where the patriarch rules in an authoritarian or a cold, forbidding way. The very first stanza also reveals that the father is very hardworking and sacrifices his own physical well-being for his family’s sake, but gets no appreciation for his efforts and dogged determination to carry out his parental duties. Another poem, â€Å"My Father in the Navy: A Childhood Memory† by Judith Ortiz Cofer speaks of a daughter’s longing for a father who is busy working in distant shores. The reader gleans how the poet’s career Navy father requires him to be apart from his family for considerable lengths of time. As such, the speaker in the poem aptly phrases the love, intense longing, as well as pride for the traveling father who looked â€Å"stiff and immaculate in the white cloth of his uniform and a round cap on his head like a halo† (Barnet 727) in such creative and vivid manner: His homecomings were the verses we composed over the years making up the siren’s song that kept him coming back from the bellies of iron whales and into our nights like the evening prayer. (Barnet 727) The author’s use of simile, personification and metaphor, among other literary devices, added to delivering a poem with grace and impact. The poem, in effect, strikes a resonant chord among readers who, at some point in their live, have had to be apart from a beloved father or father figure, and fully know what it is like to celebrate their return. The poem, â€Å"A Parental Ode to my Son, Aged Three Years and Five Months† by Thomas Hood conveys the vulnerability of the new and involved father. This special father-child bond is written about only on few occasions by a handful of writers seeking to dwell on such topic. The first few lines of the poem, which contains metaphors, mirrors the unrestrained happiness and amusement of the father for his toddler. His lines, like â€Å"Thou happy, happy elf!†¦ Thou tiny image of myself!†¦ Thou merry, laughing sprite! † (Klein 109) are punctuated by asides that let readers experience his joy. The poet also juxtaposes poetic verses with a very fatherly voice describing a much-loved child. Aside from the use of rhythm and rhyme, Thomas Hood likewise uses other figures of speech like similes and alliteration to express his terms of endearment for his young son. Another work of literature, the well-known â€Å"Death of a Salesman† by Arthur Miller, has a common thread that ties it to the five poems explored in this paper, in that it revolves around the life and dreams of a main character who happens to be a father. Willy Lohan, the salesman, represents the dog-tired father who has worked all his life to provide for his family’s needs (Williams 51), and nurtures big dreams for his sons, but the demands of fatherhood have drained him. Though his mental faculties appear to be failing him and one of his sons tends to belittle him and finds him off-track, his all-consuming fatherly concern is unassailable. Referring to his son Biff, whom he mistakenly hopes will follow in his footsteps, Willy says, â€Å"That boy’s going to be magnificent† (Williams 79) reflecting a father’s immense pride and rosy hopes for his son, even if he had been a bum for years. Readers of the play, with its timeless theme of reaching for one’s dreams, will attest to the great impact of this piece of literature. As one of them said, â€Å"Reading drama was far more enigmatic than reading prose fiction† (Oates, par. 4). All the works of literature studied here contain immense value, not just for their stylistic accomplishments and the succinct voicing of themes that are usually treated in traditional or melodramatic fashion without the rich context. Compared to the portrayal of fathers in other non-literary media like movies or television, poetry and plays rely heavily on figurative language that help elevate the experience for readers, and underscore life lessons, while bringing to readers’ minds their own poignant family experiences. The language and literary devices contribute much to a broader understanding of the subject matter. Analyzing a group of poems and a play bordering on the same subject showed that gathering different points of view or interpretations, reflecting various angles, leads to a clearer and more comprehensive study. Works Cited Barnet, Sylvan, et al. An Introduction to Literature. 14th ed. New York: Longman, 2005. Ciuraru, Carmela, ed. Poems About Fathers.. New York: Random House, Inc. , 2007. Klein, Patricia, ed. Treasury of Year-round Poems. New York: Random House, Inc. , 2006. Martin â€Å"Two Views of Plath’s Life and Career–by Linda Wagner-Martin and Anne Stevenson. † Modern American Poetry Home. 1994. 11 May 2008 < http://www. english. uiuc. edu/maps/poets/m_r/plath/twoviews. htm>. Oates, Joyce Carol. â€Å"Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman: A Celebration. † Weblog entry. Celestial Timepiece: A Joyce Carol Oates Home Page. 11 May 2008 . Williams, Liza M. , and Kent Paul. Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman Book Notes. New York: Barron’s Educational Series, 1984.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Define Statutory Sexual Seduction Essays - Sex Crimes, Rape

Define Statutory Sexual Seduction Essays - Sex Crimes, Rape Define Statutory Sexual Seduction 1.Define Statutory Sexual Seduction: According to NRS 200.364 Statutory sexual seduction is when a person 18 years of age or older commits ordinary sexual intercourse, anal intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio, intent of arousing, appealing to or gratify the lust or passions or sexual desires of either of the person with a person 18 years or older. 2.What is the penalty for a person who commits sexual assault for a child under the age of 14, where no substantial bodily harm results? Where the person has been previously convicted of a sexual assault? According to NRS 200.366 subsection 4 a person commits a sexual assault against a child under the age of 16 years, where no substantial bodily harm results, and previously convicted of sexual assault is guilty of category A felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for life 3.What is the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006? Has it been fully implemented in Nevada? Why or why not? In Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act 2006 (AWCPSA) is a federal statute, which was signed on July 27, 2006 by George W. Bush. AWCPSA organizes sex offenders into a three-tier system. AWCPSA enforces sex offenders to register into sex offender registry, update their current whereabouts, and instructs each state and territory to apply identical criteria for posting offender data on the Internet. According to Las Vegas Review Journal article Bill would repeal Adam Walsh sex-offender act in Nevada Nevada was one of the first states to implement the Adam Walsh Act, but recently Nevada introduced Senate Bill 99 in February to repel the states version of the federal Adam Walsh Act for the rethinking of juvenile sex-offnders. 4.What category of crime is it if an offender maliciously engages in a course of conduct that would cause a reasonable person to feel terrorized, frightened or intimidated? What if that course of conduct threatens a person to the point of the victim feeling reasonably in fear of death? The category of crime for an offender maliciously engage in a course of conduct that would cause a reasonable person to feel terrorized, frightened or intimidated is Stalking under NRS 200.575, which will be guilty of misdemeanor and subsequent offenses result I gross misdemeanor. In NRS 200.575 subsection 2 commits the crime aggravated stalking, which will be guilty of a category B felony 5.Where, generally, can the crime of harassment occur? (hint, it can occur in either of two places under the statute) According to NRS 200.581 the crime of harassment can occur where the conduct occurred or where the person who was affected by the conduct was located at the time that the conduct occurred. 6.What is the penalty for one who distributes a dvd showing a minor engaging in a sex act? Indicated in NRS 200.725 the penalty for one who distributes a dvd showing a minor engaging in a sex act is guilty category B felony and shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for a minimum term of not less than 1 year and a maximum term of not more than 15 years, or by a fine of not more than $15,000, or by both fine and imprisonment. 7.Can a prosecutor legally possess the dvd showing a minor engaging in a sex act from question #6? Can a criminal defense attorney possess it? According NRS 200.735 law enforcement has an exemption in legally possessing a dvd showing a minor engaging in a sex act during the investigation or prosecution. A criminal defense attorney cannot possess the dvd. 8.What is "sexting?" Is it a criminal act in Nevada if it is done by an 11 year old person? Sexting is the distribution of sexual content from one person to another with an electronic communication device. According to NRS 200.737 the a 11 year old person will be a child in need of supervision and not considered a delinquent and isnt considered a sex offender. 9.Is spousal rape a crime in Nevada? Why is it defined separately in the Nevada statute, and not simply assumed to be part of the sexual assault definitions? Spousal rape is a crime in Nevada. The reason spousal rape is defined separately from sexual assault is because NRS 200.364 defines

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Getting a Raise and Getting a Rise

Getting a Raise and Getting a Rise Getting a Raise and Getting a Rise Getting a Raise and Getting a Rise By Maeve Maddox Natasha asks: What is the difference between rise and raise? As far as I understand, they both have to do with an increase, but they are also supposed to be different. Is that correct? The words raise and rise have numerous meanings, both as verbs and as nouns. Some common meanings of rise as a noun: a movement upward Ex. The world watched his rise to power. the reaching of a higher level by an increase of quantity or bulk Ex. The rise of the river provoked concern. an upward slope Ex. We walked as far as the rise. an irritated response to provocation Ex. Your last remark sure got a rise out of him. the distance from the crotch to the waistline on pants; the distance above the waistline on skirts Ex. The tailor measured the rise. One of the Merriam-Webster definitions of raise as a noun is â€Å"an increase in wages or salary.† British speakers, however, would refer to such an increase as a â€Å"rise.† Writing for British readers, Paul MacKenzie-Cummins heads his article with the title Get a Salary Rise: Six Tips. Writing for speakers of U.S. English, Dawn Rosenberg McKay heads a similar article with the title How to Ask for a Raise. Both U. S. and British usage would find the following headline acceptable: Experts Predict a Rise in Salaries Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:How to Structure A Story: The Eight-Point ArcCannot or Can Not?Is "Number" Singular or Plural?

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Operation banking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Operation banking - Essay Example This led to better methods of measuring and managing liquidity. There are two types of liquidity ratios as explained by Palmaratha (2010, 397).funding liquidity risk and market liquidity risk. Funding liquidity is measured by the ability of the bank to meet the expected and unexpected future and present cash flows, as well as the collateral needs without affecting the daily operation of the firm or company. Market liquidity risk on the other hand is measured by the ability of the company to offset a specific position at the market price due to inadequate market disruptions or market depths. The two risks might inmost cases be dependent on one another in that, while investors demand higher compensation for the increased risks, the need for funding liquidity would certainly rise since the liquidity prevailing in the market would make it difficult to dispose of assets in order to raise the required funds. To manage the liquidity risk as Gugliemo (2008) explained would entail defining an d indentifying how much liquidity is available in the company. This includes the contingency, operational and reserve liquidity. Afterwards the company has to establish the accessibility of the liquidity as well as the relative costs involved. Gugliemo further explained that, determining the needed operational liquidity in the short term as well long term basis would work well in managing the liquidity risk. The determination of the possible changes in the market conditions and the expected changes in the liquidity needs and cash availability are also strategic methods of managing the liquidity risk in the company. The presence of sufficiently early warning systems that would allow a strategic action prior to the actual problem would be of importance in mitigating and managing the liquidity risks. Gugliemo (2008) further explained the importance of process and controls that would ensure successful execution of action plans in managing the liquidity risks. Measurement and effective m anagement of interest rate risks (IRR) calls for the effective identification and quantifying of the risk. There are various tools that have been use to measure the interest rate risk as well as to hedge them to effectively reduce the adverse impacts on the bank balance sheet as Bhole (2009, 317) explained. The instruments mostly used for the measurement of the interest rate risk are the maturity gap, simulation modeling, duration and modified duration as well as value at risk (Bhole, 2009:317). Maturity gap analysis is the simplest technique in analyzing and calculating IRR exposure. The maturity gap is used to measure the dfirection and extent of asset liability deviation. The maturity gap is in most case computed on assets and liabilities having a different maturity period in a specific time frame. Bhole further argued that the gap is an assessment on the pricing gap between the interest gained by banks on the assets and the interest paid on its liabilities over a given time fram e. It has been used as a tool to highlight the net interest income exposure of a bank as a response to the prospective changes in the interest rates in different maturity buckets. A positive gap would indicate an excess of repriced assets over the

Friday, November 1, 2019

Iraq Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Iraq - Essay Example This paper seeks to assess the Iraqi nation in terms of its profile and politics. It seeks to assess how the nation can be improved applying the different theories in social and political sciences. It shall also present the problems and the social ills that Iraq is currently experiencing, how these came about, and possible ways of addressing these problems. It shall use primary resource materials in books and the latest online materials published. It shall mainly be a literature search of materials relevant to the topic at hand. This paper shall also relate these materials researched to previous textbooks used during class lectures. Iraq is an independent state located in the Middle East. The Republic of Iraq is bounded on the east by Iran, on the southeast by Kuwait and the Gulf, on the north by Turkey, on the southwest by Saudi Arabia and Jordan, and on the northwest by Syria. It is almost a landlocked state except for 56 kilometers of coastline that gives it access to the Gulf (Foreign & Commonwealth Office, 2007). It has distinct topographical regions: the uplands and the Kurdistan Mountains, the barren desert plains, and the irrigated farm lands of the Mesopotamia. Overall the economy of Iraq is bad. International economic sanctions have largely impoverished the country. About 16% of the economy comes from their agricultural sector. It is the world’s primary producer of dates. It has the second largest oil reserve in the world (Kjeilen, 2009). But with the United Nations sanctions still effective over the country, it remains a largely impoverished nation. The latest GDP data pegs the country at a 5. 9% real economic growth (Index Mundi, 2009). Life expectancy in Iraq became lower due to the advent of the war. The life expectancy for males is now 59 years old and for females, it is 57 years old. These figures dropped from 1990’s 66.5 life expectancy (Rosenberg, 2007). The Crude Birth rate for Iraq has also

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Gender Roles Set in Stone Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Gender Roles Set in Stone - Essay Example They glorified their nudities not only as a mode of stratification but also as a type of life. Woman of Willendorf is a perfect representation of a woman in the early societies. Just as with any other sculpture at the time, the woman is nude. In her nudity, her fertility features are conspicuous. Such features as her large breasts, developed hips and a large pelvic girdle are visible. Such features portray the vital role the women played in the society. Women embodied reproduction in the society. Her fertility features show this thereby presenting her as an established woman of the time. The sculptor emphasized her fertility and child bearing features owing to the childbearing role that women played. A perfect woman was fertile thus had children. Additionally, the sculpture lacks a definite face. The wears a unique headgear hat covers both her head and parts of her face thus concealing her face. Other primary feature of the sculpture was its lack of legs. The statue does not stand on its own. The lack of legs coupled with the concealed face is two primary features included in the sculpture deliberately in an attempt to portray gender roles. Women relied on their husbands and the rest of the society by extrapolation. As such, they relied on their male counterparts who provided and protected the families. The concealed face has a spiritual connotation. Women in the prehistoric society upheld stringent religious values, which they believed, played significant roles in enhancing their fertility and childbearing role. Additionally, concealing the face of the woman shows the society’s interest in her face among other externalities (Adovasio, Jake and Olga 112). Statue of a kouros on the other hand presents the position and roles of the youth in the society. The youthful nude male stands majestically in perfect symmetry. This portrays the features of the youth in the prehistoric society as captured by

Monday, October 28, 2019

Merchants of Cool Essay Example for Free

Merchants of Cool Essay In watching the film, Merchants of Cool, which was aired in 2001, it is quite concerning how our society is turning to consuming as a means of achieving a satisfying standard of living. The film brought to light how large media companies, especially conglomerates that own all production and distribution of media from start to finish, study and sell to teen youths because of their large quantity of â€Å"guilt money†, disposable income giving to youth by parents to keep them happy. They have become the most marketed group, which in turn turns the youth into adults that continue to seek happiness in consuming. The fear in this standard of living is that we start losing touch with our true values, and instead of looking towards family, community, ethnicity and religion as the creator of cultural forms, we are now being oriented as a society by the world of commodities. And with the advancement of technology, so has marketing research advanced, where we are being specifically being catered to with ads to continue this cycle of finding meaning and happiness through the purchase of goods and services. Advertisers know that they cannot sell meaning and happiness, but they can illicit those feelings by advertising visions of what a â€Å"good life† should be through the selling of products, known as **image-based advertising**. Sut Jhally’s article, Image-Based Culture: Advertising and Popular Culture, explains how image-based advertising has been so integrated into our way of thought and consumption that it is difficult to pinpoint when our most cherished values became tied into consumer culture (p 201). Advertisements have taken up so much of our public space and discourse, and now even our private with the advancement of technology, that we are constantly being shown what the vision of happiness is, and what we must buy to achieve a satisfying standard of living. Juliet Schor’s article, The New Politics of Consumption: Why Americans Want So Much More Than They Need, breaks down the idea that Americans live in a constant state of **dis-ease**: worrying about the preoccupation with getting and spending (p 205). Not only is this disconcerting because it takes away from living in the moment, but it pushes us to live beyond our means. We aren’t happy because we do not emulate what we see as the â€Å"good life† because of the growing aspirational gap because of upscale emulation. We are never at ease where we stand economically and socially, and feel the pressures to keep up. And although this is a problem with the upper and middle class, it is a more dangerous problem for the lower class. The trickle effect of status symbol goods, such as state of the art phones, flat screen televisions, etc. , sets up those with limited resources and aspirations of living the â€Å"good life† by buying those goods for continual financial failure through consumption of expensive goods that is beyond their means. The film, The Merchants of Cool, aired in 2001, and the way that companies acquired information from the consumer was with â€Å"cool hunters†, marketing researchers who would research and interview to see what trends could be capitalized on. The analyzing was apparent, as opposed to now where consumers are being researched and targeted in ways that are more subtle, and now advertisers have the tools to more conspicuously sell us the â€Å"good life†. On the radio interview â€Å"How Companies are ‘Defining Your Worth’ Online†, Joseph Turrow discussed how marketers don’t even have to do much to gather information from us, they can now track our online movements using digital tracking like cookies. This information is gathered and sold to advertisers by data marketers, unbeknownst to us. Market research has evolved so much because of the growing digital world we live in. And advertisers are now able to subtly sell to us in a personally targeted way, instead of the blatant in your face banner ads that we would automatically close without even reading them. Although this is perfectly legal, the downfall falls on the consumer that is being researched and targeted. Our sense of consumption is insatiable when we are constantly being targeted, we lose a sense of privacy when we are constantly being watched, and, as Joseph Turrow also discussed, and we can also be targets of **digital social discrimination**. Digital social discrimination, which is the idea that companies can take digital information and make inferences of what kind of ads are suitable for the individual consumer, they target only certain ads, discounts, and such (2012). Advertisers then think of that individual only in a certain way, and may even target ads that may have negative connotations, such as getting out of debt ads, weight loss, and such. Consumers are being categorized, and because of the categories they are being targeted by certain ads, which perhaps sell a good that is not appropriate, and denied others because of assumptions being made by the online information gathered on that individual. This is why it is important to have some sort of regulatory system overseeing the structure and ownership of media. U. S. government plays only a small role in determining who owns the media, and only regulates it minimally, and the power of the U. S. media that uses the market research to produce products reaches us not just here in the United States, but also has a global impact. Because of the United States’ **cultural imperialism**, where American styles in fashion and food, as well as media far, dominate the global market, our versions of the â€Å"good life† are influenced on parts of the world, as discussed in Richard Campbell’s â€Å"Media Economics and the Global Marketplace†, (p 411). Our ‘cultural dumping’ of exporting U. S. media can influence other countries societal value systems, development of original local products, and abandon their own rituals to adopt American tastes. In reality, the power behind these large media researchers, marketers, producers, and distributors, who are often the owned by the same company, is astounding and influences not only our lives as an individual, but also has the potential to influence on a global level. They are able to gather information about individuals, sell it, and categorize as they see fit, leaving us with no sense of privacy, with the goal of selling us as many goods and services as possible until we reach the unattainable â€Å"good life†, which is a vision that they have carefully created. Until we, as consumers, are more aware of how much consumption has taken over our sense of self-worth and satisfaction and how little privacy we have in the new digital age, we will keep trying to buy the â€Å"good life†. ?

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Age of Renassaince Essay -- essays research papers

The Renaissance, which began in Italy in the fourteenth century, was a period of great change in art, culture, and science. The word Renaissance means rebirth. Many of the greatest artists in history, such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, lived during this period, but did not follow the trends of society. Great artist like Michelangelo and da Vinci began their own trends based on personal experience and beliefs. Renaissance's society was very different from feudal society of the Middle Ages. There are many contrasts in the ideals and values of the Renaissance and of the Middle Ages. The Middle Ages was a time of great suffering, including famine and wide spread disease. The Renaissance, however, was a revival of art, learning, and literature. The purpose of life was viewed differently during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. During "The Age of Faith," or the Middle Ages, man's purpose was to serve God. Life was a journey. The life of highest value was the contemplative life, a life devoted to God. In sharp contrast, man's purpose during the Renaissance was to exercise virtue, or the excellence as a man. During the Renaissance, towns in southern Europe had grown greatly in size. The wealthy people who lived in Renaissance society had more leisure time and money than did those of the Middle Ages. This meant they could spend more time studying new ideas and had could afford to patronize the arts. During the Renaissance, people ...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Effect of Communication Barriers and Overcoming These Barriers

Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. Thank you, Mr. Chairman for letting me speak. Let me introduce myself before we go to the topic. My name Mrs. Aida as a Public Speaking Trainer. Firstly, I want to explain to all of you what is communication? Communication is a process beginning with a sender who encodes the message and passes it through some channel to the receiver who decodes the message. Communication is fruitful if and only if the messages sent by the sender is interpreted with same meaning by the receiver. If any kind of disturbance blocks any step of communication, the message will be destroyed.Due to such disturbances, managers in an organization face severe problems. Thus the managers must locate such barriers and take steps to get rid of them. There are several barriers that affects the flow of communication in an organization. These barriers interrupt the flow of communication from the sender to the reciever, thus making communication ineffective. It is essential for ma nagers to overcome these barriers. The main barriers of communication are summarized below. â€Å"Ladies and gentlemen,† Firstly let me explain one of communication barriers is Perceptual and Language Differences.Perception is generally how each individual interprets the world around him. All generally want to receive messages which are significant to them. But any message which is against their values is not accepted. A same event may be taken differently by different individuals. For example : A person is on leave for a month due to personal reasons (family member being critical). The HR Manager might be in confusion whether to retain that employee or not, the immediate manager might think of replacement because his teams productivity is being hampered, the family members might take him as an emotional support.Secondly is Information Overload. Managers are surrounded with a pool of information. It is essential to control this information flow else the information is likely to be misinterpreted or forgotten or overlooked. As a result communication is less effective. The next barriers was Time Pressures:  Often in organization the targets have to be achieved within a specified time period, the failure of which has adverse consequences. In a haste to meet deadlines, the formal channels of communication are shortened, or messages are partially given, i. e. , not completely transferred.Thus sufficient time should be given for effective communication. â€Å"Ladies and gentlemen,† Distraction/Noise:  Communication is also affected a lot by noise to distractions. Physical distractions are also there such as, poor lightning, uncomfortable sitting, unhygienic room also affects communication in a meeting. Similarly use of loud speakers interferes with communication. Emotions:  Emotional state at a particular point of time also affects communication. If the receiver feels that communicator is angry he interprets that the information being sent is ver y bad.While he takes it differently if the communicator is happy and jovial (in that case the message is interpreted to be good and interesting). Complexity in Organizational Structure:  Greater the hierarchy in an organization (i. e. more the number of managerial levels), more is the chances of communication getting destroyed. Only the people at the top level can see the overall picture while the people at low level just have knowledge about their own area and a little knowledge about other areas. Poor retention:  Human memory cannot function beyond a limit.One cant always retain what is being told specially if he is not interested or not attentive. This leads to communication breakdown. So, how we as a manager to overcome these barriers of communicate? There are a lot of communication barriers faced these days by all. The message intended by the sender is not understood by the receiver in the same terms and sense and thus communication breakdown occurs. It is essential to deal and cope up with these communication barriers so as to ensure smooth and effective communication. As, in the previous section we have discussed the major barriers of communication.Let’s talk about  how to overcome these barriers of communication. Eliminating differences in perception:  The organization should ensure that it is recruiting right individuals on the job. It’s the responsibility of the interviewer to ensure that the interviewee has command over the written and spoken language. There should be proper Induction program so that the policies of the company are clear to all the employees. There should be proper trainings conducted for required employees (for eg: Voice and Accent training). Use of Simple Language:  Use of simple and clear words should be emphasized.Use of ambiguous words and jargons should be avoided. Reduction and elimination of noise levels:  Noise is the main communication barrier which must be overcome on priority basis. It is essent ial to identify the source of noise and then eliminate that source. Active Listening:  Listen attentively and carefully. There is a difference between â€Å"listening† and â€Å"hearing†. Active listening means hearing with proper understanding of the message that is heard. By asking questions the speaker can ensure whether his/her message is understood or not by the receiver in the same terms as intended by the speaker.Emotional State:  During communication one should make effective use of body language. He/she should not show their emotions while communication as the receiver might misinterpret the message being delivered. For example, if the conveyer of the message is in a bad mood then the receiver might think that the information being delivered is not good. Simple Organizational Structure:  The organizational structure should not be complex. The number of hierarchical levels should be optimum. There should be a ideal span of control within the organization. Simpler the organizational structure, more effective will be the communication. Avoid Information Overload:  The managers should know how to prioritize their work. They should not overload themselves with the work. They should spend quality time with their subordinates and should listen to their problems and feedbacks actively. Give Constructive Feedback:  Avoid giving negative feedback. The contents of the feedback might be negative, but it should be delivered constructively. Constructive feedback will lead to effective communication between the superior and subordinate.Proper Media Selection:  The managers should properly select the medium of communication. Simple messages should be conveyed orally, like: face to face interaction or meetings. Use of written means of communication should be encouraged for delivering complex messages. For significant messages reminders can be given by using written means of communication such as : Memos, Notices etc. Flexibility in meeting the targets:  For effective communication in an organization the managers should ensure that the individuals are meeting their targets timely without skipping the formal channels of communication.There should not be much pressure on employees to meet their targets. Conclusion Communication is a process of exchange of information between two or more people. Barriers that affect the process of communication can be reduced if the presenter and receiver of information to understand the role and duties of each in securing an effective communication process. By ensuring that the principles of communication clear, concise, accurate, complete and politely complied with, will allow this communication to achieve the desired goals.Hence all obstacles and weaknesses in achieving effective communication should be addressed and improved to enhance the importance of communication in everyday life. Overcome barriers to communication within the organization to ensure the free flow of information betw een sender and receiver and for effective communication among employees. Effective communication reduce error rates, reduce conflict and an understanding of and increase the profits of the organization. And we as managers must try their best to avoid communication barriers within the organization for effective business communication.