Saturday, December 28, 2019

Guilt and Corruption in Great Expectations - 1598 Words

Guilt and Corruption in Great Expectations The Victorian era is often cited as England’s golden age; however, beneath the trappings of silk and gold lay a society of greed and corruption. The rich lived a lifestyle of luxury and indulgence by exploiting the labor of the poor. Charles Dickens saw the injustice of the class system in Victorian society and worked to highlight the immorality of the upper class through his literature. Because Dickens himself had experienced both poverty and wealth, he recognized the inequality prevalent within the established class system and sought to expose the truth to others through Pip’s journey towards becoming a gentleman. In his novel Great Expectations, Dickens uses symbolism and imagery to develop†¦show more content†¦Parkinson continues, adding that â€Å"what [Mr. Jaggers] knows...eats like dirt into his mind, corrupting the honorable traits he might once have had,† further emphasizing Dickens argument that being part of the â€Å"traditional† upper class, a status gained through birth and luck, eventually corrupted the traces of decency and humanity. Pip’s growing knowledge of card games symbolizes the loss of his innocence and his increasing similarity to the arrogant upper class that he has become a part of. Parkinson highlights the connection between card games and corruption by stating that â€Å"the characters associated with successful card playing are revealed to be desperately unhappy and morally corrupt,† suggesting that the upper class, which is skilled in playing card games, is dishonest and immoral. In addition, â€Å"at the beginning of the novel, Pip knows only one card game. His inability to play games...suggests straightforwardness and honesty† (Parkinson). By examining this statement, it is clear that Dickens intends to establish Pip’s initial innocence in order to show his increasing moral impurity as a result of his association with wealthy characters such as Estella and Miss Havisham. It is also important to note that it is Estella and Miss Havisham, figures of the upper class, who pierce through Pip’s innocence and succeed in corrupting his previously sound morals. Through his connection with theShow MoreRelated Great Expectations: Gods Law Vs. Human Law Essay1164 Words   |  5 Pages Great Expectations: Gods Law vs. Human Law In his book Great Expectations, the problematic nature of moral judgement and justice that stems from a conflict between Gods law and human law is one of several topical themes that Charles Dickens addresses. This paradox regularly surfaces in his treatment of plot and setting, and is more subtlety illustrated in his use of character. To facilitate the readers awareness of such a conflict, the narrator often uses language that has Christian connotationsRead MoreThe Tragedy of Being Born a Woman Essay611 Words   |  3 PagesIn the story The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, the role of the female characters Daisy, Jordan and Myrtle find themselves in conflict with society’s expectations of them. However, they each negotiate the conflict and resolve it. By examining Daisy, Jordan and Myrtle’s roles, one can contemplate how they went about resolving the issue. The beautiful and mesmerizing Daisy Buchanan is the poster child of sociability. She lives a particular lifestyle in the privileged, high class Louisville,Read MoreHamlet by William Shakespeare726 Words   |  3 Pagesindividual who witnesses the dead body of a King, effortlessly hacked at like a piece of meat (gesture towards floor). 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Overall, Pip undergoes great changes fromRead MoreKohlberg s Theory Of Moral Development1450 Words   |  6 Pagespunishment. This will be a life expectations of society and show them the benefits of obliging as far as the law is concerned. Insurance frauds and serial killers will be deterred by punishment such as incarceration. This will help from them committing crimes ( ).† Illustrate two to three ways in which you would address self-interest and pursuit of pleasure to prevent police corruption. First, I would have to look at the nature of corruption. â€Å" Which the causes haveRead MoreThe Human Condition and Ideologies in Hamlet by Willliam Shakespeare1522 Words   |  7 Pagesas justice, loyalty and morality. Although these deeply human ideas ensure the plays resonance, they are somewhat secondary to the depths of Hamlet’s human struggle. These thematic concerns reflect how flaws in the values of society descend into corruption. Through an exploration of the characterization, Shakespeare invites a re-evaluation of the values that shape human nature. The textual integrity of Hamlet makes it of distinctive and enduring value. Its construction and language represents a powerfullyRead MoreThe Hunchback Of Notre Dame1737 Words   |  7 Pagesmedia as well as daily life, people who are deemed beautiful by society s expectations have a distinct advantage over those who only have solid morals and a first-rate education. In the movie The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Esmeralda, Quasimodo’s love interest, chooses another man because Quasimodo is not as attractive as him. Over the course of the movie, it is evident that Esmeralda is the only person to ever show great kindness to Quasimodo, despite his unconventional appearance. As a result, heRead MorePsychological Doubling Frankenstein1611 Words   |  7 Pagescharacters hidden desires and wants is called the shadow self. He also believes that between the twins like characters there is always one evil twin. Freud says that the evil twin is most often followed by some kind disease or sickness as a symbol of corruption and plague for hell. In most literature the doppelganger is the evil twin because most hidden desires are against what society finds acceptable or normal. However, in the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, that is not the case. Shelley uses thatRead MoreExplore the Relationship between Character and Environment. Essays1112 Words    |  5 PagesVictorian novelist, to strive after as full a vision of the medium in which a character moves, as of the character itself. Explore the relationship between character and environment in any one or two fictional works of the period. Both Great Expectations and David Copperfield are characterised by the close relationship between the characters and their immediate environment. This is emblematic of all Dickens novels, reflecting Dickens own life, recreating his experiences and journeys, usingRead MoreThe Poor Labyrinth: The Theme of Social Injustice in Dickens Great Expectations by John H. Hagan Jr.1304 Words   |  5 Pages Victorian England was notorious for, along with top hats, its outdated â€Å"justice† system. Fraught with corruption, expired methods, and disorganization, the Victorian judiciary system was a severe flaw in the royal kingdom that was partially fed by the crime-fearing public and indifferent servants of the law. Growing up in an oppressive environment reminiscent of Victorian England’s own corrupt justice system, Pip’s journey from childhood to adulthood illustrates a gradual realization of the willful

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Movie Analysis When A Man Loves A Woman - 889 Words

Released in the summer of 1994, the movie â€Å"When a Man Loves a Women† produced by Touchstone Pictures’ producer Jon Avnet created a film that touches on a female alcoholic. This film included stars like Meg Ryan, Andy Garcia, and Lauren Tom. An airline pilot played by Garcia as Michael and his wife Alice portrayed by Ryan are forced to deal with her alcoholism. Within this family it includes that of her two children and the nanny (Lauren Tom). The film offers several hinting scenes to Alice’s addiction. Alcoholism is a disease of denial, the movie focuses on not only the alcoholic but those around her that deny and have even grown accustomed to her drinking. The opening scene has Alice drinking and the film continues from there to focus on the alcohol. The scenarios of the mother’s slide to the bottom include incidents like that of: egging the neighbor’s car who’s alarm keeps going off, falling out of the boat on their trip to Mexi co, and the night that she locks herself out of the house because she was throwing her â€Å"evidence† bottle away. These episodes reflect not only that the problem is getting worse, but that he is enabling/ accepting it. I found it unfortunate that the film does not include more incidents such as those that Alice reveals in her AA speech. She reveals that she got out of the shower, then went outside with a towel to get the paper, however it was still folded up in her hand. The film avoids any scene with regards to her driving drunk withShow MoreRelatedEssay on Finding Meaning in For Color Girls1232 Words   |  5 Pagessuicide when the rainbow was enuf†. Tyler Perry adapted and transformed it into a movie in 2010. For colored girls is centered on nine women as they encounter their fair share of neglect, abuse, pain and harassment both physically and emotionally. They slowly but surely recover from such abuse and discover joy in themselves. The movie begins with the characters as strangers but at the end, they become good friends. I watched this movie because it was directed by Tyler Perry. I thought the movie wasRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgeralds Personl Influences on The Great Gatsby1762 Words   |  7 Pages â€Å"Let us learn to show our friendship for a man when he is alive and not after he is dead.† (Fitzgerald, 1925). The Great Gatsby is a novel written by F. Scott Fitzgerald, published in 1925, and takes place in 1922. The novel greatly exemplifies the time period that it takes place in, known as â€Å"The Roaring Twenties† or â€Å"The Jazz Age†. One way of exemplification is prohibition and the Volstead Act. According to David J. 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The full film is in the perspective of Jeff in his apartment, giving the illusion that the watcher is experiencing this mystery with him. This male perspective on the plotline of the movie introduces the gender stereotypes that encapsulates the film. The themes of this film are apparent when discussing beautyRead MoreHenry Giroux Rhetorical Analysis Essay1351 Words   |  6 Pagesand that men care more about a woman’s image rather than what a woman has to say. Giroux fails to consider that the children exposed to Disney films would not comprehend the message in the same way he does. The images that Giroux discusses such as ; â€Å"Ursulas disclosure to Ariel that having her voice taken away is not so bad because men do not like women who talk is dramatized when the prince attempts to bestow the kiss of true love on Ariel even though she has never spoken to him. Within this rigidRead More Analysis of the Movie, Daughters of the Dust Essay543 Words   |  3 PagesAnalysis of the Movie, Daughters of the Dust Daughters of the Dust, was a movie about traditions, and the history of the women in a black family carrying these traditions. The movie starts in 1902, in an island where a family has lived for generations, since the slavery times. Part of this family, wants to leave the Island, but another part wants to preserve the traditions staying in the island. So the whole movie is about the struggle of the members of this family, in relation to leavingRead MoreGender Stereotypes in Think Like a Man934 Words   |  4 PagesGender Stereotypes in Think Like a Man Think Like a Man (2012) is an American romantic comedy directed by Tim Story. It is based on Steve Harvey’s book Act Like a Lady, Think Like a Man, which was a mega best-seller of 2009 that provides women with insights into the male’s mind and strategies for conquering a man’s heart. As suggested by its title, the movie encourages women to think like a man so that they can learn to control the man. Under the advice from Harvey’s book, four women determine

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Malaysian Studies Federal Constitutional Monarch

Question: Discuss about theMalaysian Studies for Federal Constitutional Monarch. Answer: Introduction Malaysia is Southeast Asian federal constitutional monarch and is made of thirteen states and three federal territories. The nation is unique because of the harmony of the multi-ethnic groups that live in the country. The occurrence of conflict is rare among the ethnic groups in Malaysia hence ensuring the country is a society that is a pluralist (Chee, Lu, Yeoh, 2014). It is a critical task for the Malaysian government to develop a country that is integrated, there are harmony and democracy and where national identity and values are shared. The articulated aim thus has been a great unease of the government since self-rule to date, and it is replicated in the requirement to advance a nation that is cohesive. National integration substantiates a means of national unity or national consensus. It pragmatically articulates the creation of systems in domestic politics that supersedes or encompasses all the subsystems regionally (Amran, 2011). National unity accentuates the process that u nites the various groups that have backgrounds that are different concerning social and culture factors into one physical entity that is recognizable. An example where national unity can be achieved is the effort of uniting into a federation the Sabah, the Sarawak and the Peninsular of Malaysia. This assignment discusses the studies about Malaysia. Three Aspects of Integration Positive integration articulates the adjustment of existing and the subsequent establishment of new policies and institutions that are endowed with powers that are centralized and cohesive. Positive integration attempts to regain some influence for the political in respect of the society and the directive of key issues at the level of the nation. Positive integration is considered to shape the national values because it tries to intervene with the unity of the nation and subsequently involves a broader adoption of the institution at the national level. It is imperative to appreciate that real integration is not as clear as negative integration and the vulnerability of policies that are inefficient due to the accord of creating a verdict is considered to be more critical. Negative integration describes the elimination of institutions that are discriminatory. Negative integration intervenes against the barriers in the nation to the unrestricted movement of merchandises, persons, and services (Chong, Chan, Ooi, Sim, 2011). The perspective greatly diminishes the assortment of national policy selections and represent a key forfeiture of political control over the economy that is considered capitalist. The loss of the power for a nation regulation is essential in circumventing alterations by the state such as financial sustenance for a national industry that is unprofitable or processes that are discriminatory against investment from foreigners and labor (Young, Young, 2014). The demand of negative integration articulates that the local regulations comply with the law. Balanced integration heightens the adoption of both the positive and negative integration. The phenomena encompass adjusting the existing and the subsequent establishment of new policies and institution and at the same time eliminating those institutions that are considered to be discriminatory. The balanced integration shapes the national values because it tries to intervene with the unity of the nation and on the other hand the national policy choices are balanced, and the loss of power for national regulation is balanced to avoid the distortion by the state. Analysis of Each Aspect of Integration by Various Agencies of Government The Malaysian government is very solemn in attaining the nation concord and integration. Many attitudes have been adopted to overwhelm the hindrances and encounters. They encompass the following The New Economic Policy embraces an approach from a commercial perspective by the Malaysian rgime. The policy was presented in 1970 after the unrest of May 13, 1969. The object for the disturbance was because of an economic cause in which there was a large gap in the economic environment between the Malays and Chinese races (Mokhtar, Maiyaki, Mohd, 2011). The NEP is articulated as an economic development and a platform for nation unity in the public that is multiracial. The introduction for NEP was, therefore, key in demolishing the disparities in economic which is compared with the Bumiputras and the non-Bumiputras, the countryside and urban people, individuals in the west and east coast and the people in the Peninsular and Sabah and Sarawak. The wealth distribution imbalances have been characteristic of the people mentioned. There was more wealth for the non-Bumiputras, the town people, the people on the west coast and the peninsula people compared to the poverty levels of the other people. The races before the introduction of NEP were acknowledged through their economic functions. An example is articulated with the Chinese race who known for being traders and oriented towards business which controlled their commercial undertakings; the Malays were considered to be a farmer because they subsisted in the rural areas while the Indians were deemed to be laborers at estates because they lived in such estates (Warner, 2014). The introduction of NEP was to accomplish aims that include The reduction and eradication of poverty by increasing the opportunities for jobs and income to all the Malaysian citizens without looking at their races. The policy was encapsulated by restructuring the community with the aim of reducing and erasing the identification of races through how they function concerning their economic activities. The social approach is encapsulated by National Culture Policy that was introduced in August of 1971 in the direction of national integration. The NCP emboldens individuals to stake ideas among themselves (Srensen, Van den, Fullam, Doyle, Pelikan, Slonska, Brand, 2012). The policy has been in place since liberation and is articulated by the ethos of the ethnic people of the state. Any elements that are collective and affirmative from another ethos that is apt and contribute to the achievement of concord may adopt the policy. An instance is the exercise of conjoint aid referred to as gotong-royong in Malay civilization has been embraced by the policy considering that the plan is deemed to be affirmative. The official language is the Malay semantic and a communication medium of the NCP. The adoption of the policy is anticipated that it creates a national character for the Malaysian multicultural people. Various educational reports have been executed since independence to bond and assimilate the people. The British colonialist lacked a clear policy of education. Education developed in four virtually segregated streams which were articulated by ethnicity (Harris, 2012). These streams comprised of English, Malay, Chinese and Tamil languages with each having its objectives, syllabus, instruction medium and the qualification of the teacher and standards of training. An example is the use of Chinese language where it was used for the Chinese community as a medium of tutoring and hence the learners were visible to China history. The history of the Malayan and likewise for Tamil was never taught as this was a divide and rule policy that had been adopted by the British who never wanted the people to unite. The following reports are critical for national unity under the education agency of the government; The Razak Report of 1956 was made up of a team formed by the British rule and lead by the Minister of Education at the period. The responsibility encompassed the preparation of the national education system (Mokhtar, Maiyaki, Mohd, 2011). The report articulated for one system of education; Malayan semantic was made to be the recognized national dialectal and a medium of tutoring in education and Malay dialect and English was made compulsory in all primary and secondary schools Rahman Talib Report of 1961 strengthened the implementation of Razak Report by making changes to the amendments. The Malayan language became the only language as a medium of instruction, and there were two types of schools. The Hussein Onn Report of 1971 aimed at restudying the National Education Policy and offer education to all children in schooling age. The Mahathir Report of 1985 was to ensure that the system of education that existed contented the nation goal of producing a society that was cohesive, orderly and skilled. The Ministry of National Unity and Social Development was created in 1990. One of the key purposes is to embolden the multiracial society harmony and also promote the national integration (Hutchison, Reinking, 2011). The ministry has many departments with the Department of Social Unity ensuring that the realization of the ministry is in the direction of integration. The objective that heightens the national inclusion of the section include The increase of awareness to the community on the national concord and integration through programs and activities that embolden and reinforce the values articulated. To substantively bring together and synchronize programs on the racial interface through Runuk Tetangga which encompass a structure which is grounded on the neighborliness spirit. The children are educated on the races that form a character and eccentric that aid the effort for national concord and assimilation. Since the birth of Malaysia, the government has been serious about ensuring that there is unity. The leaders from the three primary races have taken an ingenuity to form a treaty among the parties that participate in politics which embody the three races. The National Front, an alliance between three sides, was established in 1951 and is still present today (Miller, 2011). Through the treaty, all the contrary interpretations among the races are synchronized and determined by the agents of the party. The pact has been seen to up to a certain extent brought some success in the management of conflict between the communities in Malaysia. The main requirements of the constitution articulate that the Malay semantic is the regional language of Malaysia. The language is encapsulated to endorse unity among the citizens, and it is articulated by few proverbs that have been created. How the Three Aspects of Integration as Stated can Contribute to the Development of National Integration Values The three aspects of integration that are the positive, negative and balanced integration that has played a pivotal role in understanding the dynamics of the Malaysian national values in development and also instrumental in explaining the dynamics and can contribute to the development of national integration values (Pietsch, Clark, 2014). Despite diverse variations between the three aspects of integration, the introduction of common recognition as the lead policy has privileged the elimination of barriers to negative integration over the adoption of common standards which are the positive integration. As a study of the efforts taken thus far shows, negative integration has been prejudiced towards positive integration at the expense of both individual and companies rights. Unity is considered to be the process that involves coming together in all aspects of social, physical, political and economic (Lee, 2015). Basically, the term unity can be referred to as a process of outlining a n ationalized identity among the differentiated groups in diverse issues like cultures, beliefs, sociology, politics and locations in the political unit because every cultural group in Malaysia has its own language, cultures, and beliefs. Positive integration, negative integration, and the balanced integration can contribute to the development of national integration values through the following ways; Positive integration has encouraged diverse people to move from one area to another. The aspect of positive integration has led to the many Malaysian people moving from other parts to other parts. Setting diverse people in certain areas can encourage integration and closer mingling among races (Idris, Dollard, 2011). Positive integration has unified public servants among all the states in the country. State officers and their respective families can be requested to move and serve in terrorists that basically need their respective services. The officers can also be encouraged to join meetings, seminars, and programs for training in the country as this aspect will bring individuals near to one another (Hassan, Weiss, 2012). Positive integration has also developed better business opportunities in the country regions since this particular phenomenon basically refers to traders in non-developed regions so as to move to more developed regions so as to expand their particular economic act ivities. Positive integration is habitually recognized with optimistic values such as social defense and the improvement of marketplace failures, negative integration with social dumping, deregulation, and the securing of economic interests. In reality, economic and other exceptional interests might find it suitable to support positive integration measures and efforts. Positive integration being one of the aspects of integration can contribute to the development of national integration values through standardization of the country education system. Even though the education system in Malaysia has reached to maturity, there are still some matters that basically need some attention because it is basically believed that the education system is considered to be an important component in determining the direction of ethnic reactions in Malaysia. National types of schools need to be reexamined so as to determine the aspect benefits all ethnicities particularly in the sense of unity. Negative integration has facilitated Malaysia to remove diverse barriers that may hinder the overall production of its firms. Removal of tariffs such as higher taxes towards diverse companies in the state will encourage the aspect of production because the firms will be able to make a significant amount of profits (Hashim, Rahman, 2011). This type of integration will be more comprehensive to economic integration since the country needs to ensure that economic development is carried out comprehensively and that no difference occurs in the economic development. Negative integration may also lead to national development because the removal of diverse quotas on the companys production will enhance the state values in terms of development. The aspect has also reduced poverty levels basically by providing more employment opportunities to all the state races, communities and also restructured communities so as to eradicate the aspect of racial stereotyping based on the economic functions. Negative integration being one of the aspects of integration can contribute to the development of national integration values through the development of diverse strategies for eradicating policies. The main focus of the aspect of integration was to focus in both rural and urban areas (Koh, 2015). Therefore the negative integration has enhanced the government implementation of various public services and facilities such as educations, water health and supply of electricity. Negative integration can contribute to the development of national integration values through reducing the imbalances in the land utilization structures so that the participations of diverse races in main sectors would basically reflect on the labor force in accordance with racial composition. Under the balanced integration, being another aspect of national integration can contribute to the development of national integration values by ensuring balanced development for the main economic sector so as improve complementary capacities between diverse states to optimize growth. This aspect will create an optimum balance among the targets of economic development with fair value distribution in the national development principles that basically improves the country development. Balanced integration will also enhance, reduce and eventually eradicate social and economic imbalances through encouraging fair sharing and mutual benefits that were obtained from more growth experienced in Malaysia (De Wilde, Zrn, 2012). The aspect of progressive society development in which the Malaysian people can enjoy a high level of well-being possesses spiritual values and social values as well as feeling appreciation and the love of the country because balanced integration is a clear aspect that brings about diverse solutions so as to enhance the overall production. Suggestion of Policies or Activities that could be Proposed in Contributing to National Integration Developing human resources, and creating a disciplined and productive workforce as well as improved necessary skills to face challenges of industrial development via a culture of excellence without jeopardizing the main aim of restructuring diverse communities. Basically, human resources form the bigger factor in every country because they often provide support to the firms productions and a better proposal that contributes to the national integration. Another suggestion is that the country ensures that in pursuit of economic development is the eradication of poverty (Warner, 2014). These suggestions assist in providing a suitable attention in that if usually provided to the protection of the environment and the ecology in the long term. In order to ensure that the state development is continuously maintained, the national development principles have taken into deliberation the overall progress attained as well as its weaknesses and strengths. In implementing diverse strategies on poverty eradication, the national integration policy will take into deliberation diverse changes to the role of the public sector through the opening of land and subsidy awards to small farmers so as to create job opportunities and assist advance their incomes (Tang, Chua, 2012). Promoting the use of national language is another policy that will promote unity among the people of Malaysia. The main goal of this particular policy is to ensure that the proposed development system satisfy the state goal of production of a united, trained and disciplined society. Enhancing the aspect of national language will result in broader capabilities of the country development Another suggestion of policies that could be proposed in contributing to national integration is the use of national culture policy and participation of all races in developing Malaysia. National culture policy is considered to be a social means towards the aspect of national integration because through the national culture policy diverse people are encouraged to share values among then (Felker, Jomo, Rasiah, 2013). The national development policy is usually based on the aspect of the ethnicity of the Malaysian indigenous people because it is basically considered that any positive and universal elements from other cultures that is appropriate and contributes towards unity. In the basic implementation of national culture policy, two-pronged strategies will continue to encourage the garnering of national resources and the utilizing the intelligence of multiracial societies so as to build a durable economy and increase the states capability to withstand the globe economic uncertainties and instabilities. Restructuring of societies is another policy because abolishment of racial stereotypes in accordance with economic functions and also a restructuring of ownership will continue to be vital programs in the overall implementation of diverse strategies so as to improve and to contribute to the national integration in both the modern centers and traditional sectors. This particular activity or policy will equip Malaysia with suitable skills to not only manage and operate successful trading but also to maintain the entire wealth in addition. Conclusion In conclusions, from the entire discussion, it is generally concluded that Malaysia is considered to be a multi-cultural or multi-ethnic and pluralist society because from the Independence to present, this state has experienced diverse obstacles, problems, and challenges, in the aspect of national integration (Favell, 2016). Many states have taken several measures to make sure unity and stability among diverse ethnic group and races. The Malaysian state government has often put diverse measures which are very vital for unity or national integration. The national integration will make sure that the states success and the wealth will enhance the aspect of national integration. References Amran, N. A. (2011). Corporate governance mechanisms and company performance: Evidencefrom Malaysian companies. International Review of Business Research Papers, 7(6), 101-114. Chee, H. L., Lu, M. C., Yeoh, B. S. (2014). Ethnicity, citizenship and reproduction: Taiwanese wives making citizenship claims in Malaysia. Citizenship Studies, 18(8), 823-838. Chong, A. Y., Chan, F. T., Ooi, K. B., Sim, J. J. (2011). Can Malaysian firms improveorganizational/innovation performance via SCM?. Industrial Management Data Systems, 111(3), 410-431. De Wilde, P., Zrn, M. (2012). Can the politicization of European integration be reversed?. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 50(s1), 137-153. Favell, A. (2016). Philosophies of integration: immigration and the idea of citizenship in Franceand Britain. Springer. Felker, G., Jomo, K. S., Rasiah, R. (Eds.). (2013). Industrial technology development inMalaysia: industry and firm studies. Routledge. Hassan, S., Weiss, M. (Eds.). (2012). Social Movement Malaysia. Routledge.Harris, A. L. (2012). Diaspora and imagined nationality: USA-African dialogue and Cyberframing Nigerian nationhood. Journal of Pan African Studies, 5(3), 135-137. Hashim, U., Rahman, R. (2011). 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Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Theory of planned behaviour

Definition The theory of planned behaviour states that individuals’ behaviours are determined by their intentions which in turn are influenced by attitudes, subjective norms and perception of control over behaviour (Contento, 2010). Intention refers to the extent to which someone is ready to engage in certain behaviour. It refers to the likelihood that someone will engage in certain behaviour.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Theory of planned behaviour specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the theory of planned behaviour is based on the concept that people are likely to do something if they plan to do it than if they do not. This means that intention is a key determinant on whether a certain action will be carried out. Therefore, people are certainly not likely to engage in a certain behaviour if they do not intend to. However, intention is influenced by attitudes, social norms and perceived behaviou r control (Edberg, 2009). Attitudes Attitudes are developed from a series of beliefs and they determine the value placed on the outcome of a given behaviour (Shaw, Gorely Corban, 2005). A person’s behaviour will be favourable if he or she perceives the outcome of certain behaviour to be positive, desirable, beneficial or advantageous. Conversely, unfavourable attitude refers to a case whereby, an individual perceives the outcome to be unpleasant. Hence, he or she is less likely to engage in that behaviour. For example, if a person believes that taking a lot of water will make him healthier then he is more likely to drink a lot of water (Ajzen, 2005). However, if the same person believes that taking a lot of water will make him lose his or her body shape, which he or she values, then he is less likely to take more water (Armitage Christian, 2004). Subjective Norms Apart from attitude intention is also influenced by subjective norms. Subjective norm refers to a social pressur e to engage or not to engage in a certain behaviour and is determined by normative beliefs (Wilson Kolander, 2010). Therefore, subjective norms refer to those behaviours that we perceive that the important people in our lives expect from us. The important people are those that we esteem highly who are our family members, religious leaders, healthcare providers, or friends and peers. Therefore, the subjective norms are as a result of our perceptions of the behaviours these people expect from us, and our desire to comply with the perceived expectations (Arnold, 2010).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More For instance, a first-time mother is likely to feed her child only on breast milk for a longer period if her mother and the doctors emphasize it to her. However, she is likely to breastfeed her child for a short period if these people are not concerned. (Hayden, 2009). Perceived b ehaviour control The intention to do something is determined by the extent to which he or she can control that behaviour. The theory of planned behaviour is based on volitional control of behaviour whereby a person is able to decide at will to engage or not to engage in certain behaviour. For instance, a person decides whether to take lunch or not at will (Fishbein, Ajzen Hornik 2007). However, there are times when an individual cannot control the behaviour although he or she has a high intention to engage in that behaviour. Therefore, a person is less likely to engage in a behaviour if he or she has less control over the behaviour. Conversely, the same person has a high likelihood in a certain behaviour if he or she perceives or actually has a high control over the behaviour (Glanz, Rimer Viswanath, 2008). List of references Ajzen I. (2005). Attitudes, personality and behaviour. Berkshire: McGraw-Hill International. Armitage, C. J. and Christian A. (2004). Planned behaviour: the relationship between human thought and action. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. Arnold V. (2010). Advances in Accounting in Behavioural Research. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Contento, I. R. (2010). Nutrition Education: Linking Research, Theory, and Practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones Bartlett Learning.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Theory of planned behaviour specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Edberg, M. C. (2009). Essential readings in health behaviour: theory and practice. London: Jones Bartlett Learning. Fishbein M., Ajzen I. and Hornik R. (2007). Prediction and change of health behaviour: applying the reasoned action approach. Mahwah, NJ: Routledge. Glanz K., Rimer, B. K. and Viswanath K. (2008). Health Behaviour and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. John Wiley and Sons. Hayden J. (2009). Introduction to health behaviour theory. Sudbury, MA: Jones Bartlett Learning. Shaw D., Gorel y T. and Corban R. (2005). Instant notes in sport and exercise psychology. New York, NY: Garland Science. Wilson R. and Kolander, C. A. (2010). Drug Abuse Prevention: A School and Community Partnership. Sudbury, MA: Jones Bartlett Learning. This essay on Theory of planned behaviour was written and submitted by user Giselle Daniels to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.